Separation of church and state - Wikipedia
Pope Francis's visit is expected to unsettle the complex relationship between church and politics that manifests in a unique expression of. III. CONSTITUTIONAL CONTEXT. A. Brief History of State-Religion Relations only Church of the Mexican people. 7. Vid. M. Gómez Granados. The Roman Catholic Church's role in Mexican history goes back to The history of the relationship between church and state following independence.
In the same way, the presidents of the two official Protestant churches are appointed by the State, after proposition by their respective Churches. This makes the French President the only temporal power in the world to formally have retained the right to appoint Catholic bishops, all other Catholic bishops being appointed by the Pope. In French Guyana the Royal Regulation of makes the French state pay for the Roman Catholic clergy, but not for the clergy of other religions.
Moreover, French heads of states are traditionally offered an honorary title of Canon of the Papal Archbasilica of St. John LateranCathedral of Rome. Once this honour has been awarded to a newly elected president, France pays for a choir vicar, a priest who occupies the seat in the canonical chapter of the Cathedral in lieu of the president all French presidents have been male and at least formally Roman Catholic, but if one were not, this honour could most probably not be awarded to him or her.
The French President also holds a seat in a few other canonical chapters in France. Louis of the French, St. Ivo of the Bretons, St.
Claude of the Free County of Burgundy, and St. Nicholas of the Lorrains as well as a chapel in Loreto belong to France, and are administered and paid for by a special foundation linked to the French embassy to the Holy See.
In Wallis and Futunaa French overseas territory, national education is conceded to the diocese, which gets paid for it by the State A further entanglement consists in liturgical honours accorded to French consular officials under Capitations with the Ottoman Empire which persist for example in the Lebanon and in ownership of the Catholic cathedral in Smyrna Izmir and the extraterritoriality of St. Anne's in Jerusalem and more generally the diplomatic status of the Holy Places.
Germany[ edit ] Courtroom with Crucifix in Nuremberg, Germany, June The German constitution guarantees freedom of religion but there is not a complete separation of church and state in Germany. For recognized religious communities, some taxes are collected by the state;  this is at the request of the religious community and a fee is charged for the service.
Although the endowment was for a religious purpose, the Church itself did not control the funds. It was a way that pious elite families could direct their wealth.
In general the crown gave these revenues for the support of the Church, and where revenues fell short, the crown supplemented them from the royal treasury. The Jesuits distinguished themselves in several ways.
They had high standards for acceptance to the order and many years of training. They were adept at attracting the patronage of elite families whose sons they educated in rigorous, newly founded Jesuit colegios "colleges"including Colegio de San Pedro y San PabloColegio de San Ildefonsoand the Colegio de San Francisco Javier, Tepozotlan.
Those same elite families hoped that a son with a vocation to the priesthood would be accepted as a Jesuit.
Mexico - Church-State Relations
Jesuits were also zealous in evangelization of the indigenous, particularly on the northern frontiers. Jesuit Haciendas[ edit ] To support their colegios and members of the Society of Jesus, the Jesuits acquired landed estates that were run with the best-practices for generating income in that era.
A number of these haciendas were donated by wealthy elites. The donation of an hacienda to the Jesuits was the spark igniting a conflict between seventeenth-century bishop of Puebla Don Juan de Palafox to the Jesuit colegio in that city. Since the Jesuits resisted paying the tithe on their estates, this donation effectively took revenue out of the church hierarchy's pockets by removing it from the tithe rolls.
Although most haciendas had a free work force of permanent or seasonal laborers, the Jesuit haciendas in Mexico had a significant number of black slaves. Jesuits did significantly expand missions to the indigenous in the frontier area and a number were martyred, but the crown supported those missions.
Separation of church and state
The Franciscans, who were founded as an order embracing poverty, did not accumulate real estate, unlike the Augustinians and Dominicans in Mexico. Jesuit Resistance to the Tithe[ edit ] The Jesuits engaged in conflict with the episcopal hierarchy over the question of payment of tithes, the ten percent tax on agriculture levied on landed estates for support of the Church hierarchy, from bishops and cathedral chapters to parish priests.
Since the Jesuits were the largest religious order holding real estate, surpassing the Dominicans and Augustinians who had accumulated significant property, this was no small matter.
Expulsion of the Jesuits [ edit ] See also: Suppression of the Jesuits Inthe Spanish crown ordered the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spain and its overseas territories. Their properties passed into the hands of elites who had the wherewithal to buy them. The mendicants did not protest their expulsion. The Jesuits had established missions in Baja California prior to their expulsion.
These were taken over by the Franciscans, who then went on to establish 21 missions in Alta California. Establishments for Elite Creole Women[ edit ] In the first generation of Spaniards in New Spain, women emigrated to join existing kin, generally marrying.
With few marital partners of equal calidad for Spanish men, there was pressure for Spanish women to marry rather than take the veil as a nun. However, as more Spanish families were created and there were larger number of daughters, the social economy could accommodate the creation of nunneries for women.
Puebla, New Spain's second largest city, had 11, with its first in ; Guadalajara had 6, starting in ; Antequera Oaxacahad 5, starting in In all, there were 56 convents for creole women in New Spain, with the greatest number in the largest cities.
Sor Juana's Jeronymite order had only 3 houses. Depending on the particular religious order, the discipline was more or less strict. Nuns were required to provide a significant dowry to the nunnery on their entrance. As "brides of Christ", nuns often entered the nunnery with an elaborate ceremony that was an occasion for the family to display not only its piety but also its wealth. Nunneries accumulated wealth due to the dowries donated for the care of nuns when they entered. Many nunneries also acquired urban real estate, whose rents were a steady source of income to that particular house.
For Indian Noblewomen[ edit ] In the eighteenth century, the Poor Clares was established a convent for noble Indian women. The debate leading up to the creation of the convent of Corpus Christi in was another round of debate about the capacity of Indians, male or female, for religious life. The early sixteenth century had seen the demise of the Colegio de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolcowhich had been founded to train Indian men for ordination. Holy Office of the Inquisition[ edit ] Main article: Mexican Inquisition At the same time that the episcopal hierarchy in Mexico first had a secular cleric as archbishop, the tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition was established in to maintain orthodoxy and Christian morality.
InIndians were removed from the Inquisition's jurisdiction. The plaque says "In front of this place was the quemadero burning place of the Inquisition. The Inquisition tried those accused, but did not itself have the power to execute the convicted. They were turned over "relaxed" to secular authorities for capital punishment. Crypto-Jews[ edit ] Non-Catholics were banned from emigrating to Spain's overseas territories, with potential migrants needing to receive a license to travel that stated they were of pure Catholic heritage.
However, a number of crypto-Jewsthat is, Jews who supposedly converted to Christianity conversos but continued practicing Judaism did emigrate.
Many were merchants of Portuguese background, who could more easily move within the Spanish realms during the period — when Spain and Portugal had the same monarch.
History of the Catholic Church in Mexico - Wikipedia
The Portuguese empire included territories in West Africa and was the source of African slaves sold in Spanish territories. Quite a number of Portuguese merchants in Mexico were involved in the transatlantic slave trade. When Portugal successfully revolted against Spanish rule inthe Inquisition in Mexico began to closely scrutinize the merchant community in which many Portuguese merchants were crypto-Jews.
It demanded the right to play a much more visible role in national affairs. At the same time, the church became increasingly outspoken in its criticism of government corruption. The Mexican bishops' Global Pastoral Plan forfor example, contained a highly critical assessment of the Mexican political system.
According to the Roman Catholic hierarchy, democracy existed only in theory in Mexico. The ruling PRI monopolized power, producing apathy and frustration among citizens and judicial corruption.
The principal worker and peasant unions were subject to political control. Peasants and Indians constituted an exploited, marginalized mass barely living at a subsistence level and subject to continual repression. The Roman Catholic Church hierarchy has emphasized that its renewed interest in political affairs does not equate with church involvement in party activities. According to the Mexican episcopate, priests should be above all political parties and may not become political leaders.
However, the church hierarchy also argues that priests have a moral responsibility to denounce actions that violate Christian morality. The Salinas administration's proposal to remove all constitutional restrictions on the Roman Catholic Church, recommendations approved by the legislature the following year, allowed for a more realistic church-state relationship.
At the same time, however, tensions remained in the relationship, particularly in southern Mexico in general and in Chiapas in particular. Federal soldiers repeatedly searched diocesan churches in their pursuit of the rebels. The government also expelled foreign clergy who were accused of inciting violence and land seizures.
For their part, the rebels insisted that the bishop continue to serve as mediator in their negotiations with the federal government. Popular Beliefs Mexican Catholicism is extremely varied in practice. It ranges from those who support traditional folk religious practices, usually in isolated rural communities, to those who adhere to the highly intellectualized theology of liberation, and from charismatic renewal prayer groups to the conservative Opus Dei movement.
Lay groups with different goals, purposes, and political orientations are well known and common in contemporary Mexico. The largest and best known include Mexican Catholic Action, Knights of Columbus, Christian Study Courses, Christian Family Movement, and a wide range of university students' and workers' organizations.
The Virgin of Guadalupe has long been a symbol enshrining the major aspirations of Mexican society. According to Roman Catholic belief, in Decemberthe Virgin Mary appeared on three occasions to a Christian Indian woodcutter named Juan Diego on the hill of Tepeyac, six kilometers north of Mexico City's main plaza.