species” in relation to the projects in which humans engage, projects through which .. of culture's crucial agencies for the conversion of nature into culture. Figure 3: Relationships between the human footprint and suitability of land for agriculture. . Crop and pasture lands are the greatest driver of land conversion, and . Many of the pressures humans impose on the environment are .. an excel file with the validation data and a PDF with the validation key. The key to the mysteries of human nature is to be found in society. Sometimes the relation between man and society is interpreted in such a way that the . It is the conversion of the results of physical and intellectual activity into forces that.
Interspecies allometric scaling for dose conversion from animal to human studies is one of the most controversial areas in clinical pharmacology. Allometric approach considers the differences in body surface area, which is associated with animal weight while extrapolating the doses of therapeutic agents among the species. This review provides basic information about translation of doses between species and estimation of starting dose for clinical trials using allometric scaling.
The method of calculation of injection volume for parenteral formulation based on human equivalent dose is also briefed. Calculation, clinical trials, experiment, extrapolation, parenteral, species, starting dose, translation Introduction Safe and effective drug dosing is necessary, regardless of its purpose of administration.
There are several instances, wherein the initial dose of a particular drug is unavailable in a specific species. Therefore, choosing starting dose of such drugs for research, experiments, or clinical trials in animals and humans is a concern. This is primarily because the biochemical, functional systems in species vary which in turn alter pharmacokinetics.
Therefore, extrapolation of dose from animals to humans needs consideration of body surface area, pharmacokinetics, and physiological time to increase clinical trial safety.
There are four different methods namely dose by factor, similar drug, pharmacokinetically guided, and comparative approaches are described in literature to assess the initial dose. In similar drug approach, the existing pharmacokinetics data for another drug of the same pharmacological category may be used. He is the living memory of history, the focus of all the wealth of knowledge, abilities, skills, and wisdom that have been amassed through the ages.
Man is a kind of super-dense living atom in the system of social reality. He is a concentration of the actively creative principle in this system. Through myriads of visible and invisible impulses the fruit of people's creative thought in the past continues to nourish him and, through him, contemporary culture.
Sometimes the relation between man and society is interpreted in such a way that the latter seems to be something that goes on around a person, something in which he is immersed. But this is a fundamentally wrong approach. Society does, of course, exist outside the individual as a kind of social environment in the form of a historically shaped system of relations with rich material and spiritual culture that is independent of his will and consciousness. The individual floats in this environment all his life.
But society also exists in the individual himself and could not exist at all, apart from the real activity of its members.
History in itself does nothing. Society possesses no wealth whatever. It fights no battles.
It grows no grain. It produces no tools for making things or weapons for destroying them. It is not society as such but man who does all this, who possesses it, who creates everything and fights for everything. Society is not some impersonal being that uses the individual as a means of achieving its aims. All world history is nothing but the daily activity of individuals pursuing their aims.
Here we are talking not about the actions of individuals who are isolated and concerned only with themselves, but about the actions of the masses, the deeds of historical personalities and peoples.
An individual developing within the framework of a social system has both a certain dependence on the whole system of social standards and an autonomy that is an absolutely necessary precondition for the life and development of the system. The measure of this personal autonomy is historically conditioned and depends on the character of the social system itself.
Exceptional rigidity in a social system fascism, for example makes it impossible or extremely difficult for individual innovations in the form of creative activity in various spheres of life to take place, and this inevitably leads to stagnation.
The relationships between the individual and society in history. To return once again to the simile of the river. The history of humankind is like a great river bearing its waters into the ocean of the past. What is past in life does not become something that has never been. No matter how far we go from the past, it still lives to some extent in us and with us.
From the very beginning, the character of the man-society relationship changed substantially in accordance with the flow of historical time. The relationship between the individual and a primitive horde was one thing. Brute force was supreme and instincts were only slightly controlled, although even then there were glimpses of moral standards of cooperation without which any survival, let alone development, would have been impossible.
In tribal conditions people were closely bound by ties of blood. At that time there were no state or legal relationships. Not the individual but the tribe, the genus, was the law-giver.
Man and Society
The interests of the individual were syncretised with those of the commune. In the horde and in tribal society there were leaders who had come to the fore by their resourcefulness, brains, agility, strength of will, and so on. Labour functions were divided on the basis of age and sex, as were the forms of social and other activity. With the development of the socium an ever increasing differentiation of social functions takes place.
People acquire private personal rights and duties, personal names, and a constantly growing measure of personal responsibility.Man and environment relation(Geography), MA Geography, Gurukpo
The individual gradually becomes a personality, and his relations with society acquire an increasingly complex character. When the society based on law and the state first arose, people were sharply divided between masters and slaves, rulers and ruled.
A simple practice guide for dose conversion between animals and human
Slave society with its private property set people against one another. Some individuals began to oppress and exploit others. Feudal society saw the emergence of the hierarchy of castes, making some people totally dependent on others.
On the shoulders of the common toiler there grew up an enormous parasitic tree with kings or tsars at its summit. This pyramid of social existence determined the rights and duties of its citizens, and the rights were nearly all at the top of the social scale.
This was a society of genuflection, where not only the toilers but also the rulers bowed the knee to the dogma of Holy Scripture and the image of the Almighty. The age of the Renaissance was a hymn to the free individual and to the ideal of the strong fully developed human being blazing trails of discovery into foreign lands, broadening the horizons of science, and creating masterpieces of art and technical perfection.
History became the scene of activity for the enterprising and determined individual. Not for him the impediments of the feudal social pyramid, where the idle wasted their lives and money, enjoying every privilege, and the toilers were kept in a state of subjugation and oppression.
At first came the struggle for freedom of thought, of creativity. This grew into the demand for civil and political freedom, freedom of private initiative and social activity in general. As a result of the bourgeois revolutions that followed, the owners of capital acquired every privilege, and also political power. The noble demand that had been inscribed on the banners of the bourgeois revolutions—liberty, equality and fraternity—turned out to mean an abundance of privileges for some and oppression for others.
A simple practice guide for dose conversion between animals and human
Individualism blossomed forth, an individualism in which everybody considered himself the hub of the universe and his own existence and prosperity more important than anyone else's.
People set themselves up in opposition to other people and to society as a whole. Such mutual alienation is a disease that corrupts the social whole. The life of another person, even one's nearest, becomes no more than a temporary show, a passing cloud. The growing bureaucracy, utilitarianism and technologism in culture considerably narrow the opportunities for human individuality to express and develop itself.
The individual becomes an insignificant cog in the gigantic machine controlled by capital. Alienation makes itself felt with particular force. It is the conversion of the results of physical and intellectual activity into forces that get out of human control and, having gained the whip hand, strike back at their own creators, the people.
It is a kind of jinn that people summon to their aid and then find themselves unable to cope with. Thus, the state which arose in slave society, became a force that oppressed the mass of the people, an apparatus of coercion by one class over another.