BBC Bitesize - GCSE History - Challenges to Elizabeth's rule - Edexcel - Revision 8
Elizabeth I's relationship with Mary, Queen of Scots dominated . place Mary on the throne, was proof to spymaster Francis Walsingham This article was first published in the Christmas issue of BBC History Magazine. Issue, James VI and I · House · Stuart. Father, James V of Scotland. Mother, Mary of Guise. Religion, Roman Catholic. Signature, Mary Stuart's signature. Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December – 8 February ), also known as Mary Stuart or His House of Stuart had gained the throne of Scotland by the marriage of. The marriage of Francis II, the Dauphin of France to Mary Queen of Scots. Francis, a sickly child from birth, suffered from chronic respiratory problems all of his.
He then realized the crown would never be his. On the night of 9th Februarywhile Mary was attending a wedding at Holyrood House, Darnley and his manservant attempted to escape their lodgings after they discovered the building was about to be blown up.
They were caught in the grounds and strangled. Mary was quite shocked by the assassination, although her subjects later accused her of being involved. Mary, however, soon lost her delusions as Bothwell began to treat her like a whore, seducing other women in the royal household and even having sexual relations with his ex-wife whom he had divorced to marry Mary.
On 15th June both armies met at Carberry Hill. Although the battle was a farce, Bothwell fled and ended up a captive in a Danish fortress. Mary, now expecting her Lords to be repentant, was surprised when she was taken prisoner by them. Mary, while aware of the plots and intrigues going on around her, did not seem to be fully conscious of the consequences.
She lost her crown, and everything she held dear, through her inability to rise above such deceits. She was now held captive by her former subjects and must have wondered about the decisions she had made in her life.
Barely a month after being imprisoned, Mary was forced to abdicate the throne in favor of her son James. In Maywith the help of some friends, Mary managed to escape from Lochleven Castle where she was being held captive.
She then gathered her loyal subjects to mount a last attack on the Scottish Lords who were against her. Mary had nowhere in Scotland to run to, and she made a decision to travel to England and appeal to her cousin, Queen Elizabeth.
Although the two queens had traded correspondence over the years, they had never met. Now Elizabeth was being asked to harbor her cousin. Elizabeth was a strong personality, but was extremely indecisive and relied on her closest advisors to guide her.
On one hand, Mary was her cousin and a legal queen in her own right. On the other, she was a Catholic monarch and presented a tangible threat to the throne as a plausible excuse for the Catholic heads of France and Spain to invade England.
But Randolph's reports point unexpectedly to Bothwell's continuing influence. The upshot of meetings such as this one was that Mary chose Henry, Lord Darnley, as her new husband.
By marrying Darnley, Mary hoped to strengthen the Catholic cause and enhance her claim to the English throne. The wedding took place at the Chapel Royal at Holyrood on 29 JulyMary wearing black, as befitted a widow. Moray and some of the Protestant lords rebelled in protest, but were eventually driven into England by royal troops led by the Earls of Lennox and Bothwell, the latter having been recalled from France for the occasion. Bothwell was now at the height of his powers, a leading member of Mary's new - and largely Catholic - council.
The only fly in the ointment was Darnley. He spent little time with the Queen and even less on the affairs of state, preferring to hunt, hawk, drink and keep low company. Gradually the Queen fell out of love. But Darnley had done one thing right: Top Alone and defenceless The remaining Protestant lords saw Darnley as the weak link.
Mary, Queen of Scots has a Valois Child | Alternate History Discussion
They told him that Mary's Italian secretary, a former musician named David Rizzio, had too much influence at court. Because he was Mary's lover. The jealous and gullible Darnley believed them, and agreed to take part in Rizzio's murder. He also agreed to uphold the Protestant religion, and to the return from exile of the other Protestant lords.
There has never been any evidence that Mary was having an affair with Rizzio. If she had been, Randolph would have known, yet he does not mention it in any of his reports to Cecil.
She spent days in her chamber weeping, close to nervous collapse. Nevertheless, on 9 MarchMary was having a small supper party in her private apartments, with Rizzio and five close friends, when Darnley and a group of Protestant nobles burst in.
They dragged Rizzio from the table and into the next room - where they stabbed him 56 times. Bothwell had also been a target, but he managed to climb out of a window and descape to Dunbar. Alone and defenceless, Mary decided that her only hope was Darnley. Two nights after the murder she went to his room and convinced him that the Protestant lords were using him. Soon he was begging her forgiveness and together they escaped to Dunbar, where Bothwell was gathering an army.
They returned to Edinburgh with the army and forced the murderers to flee. But Mary never really recovered. She could never forgive Darnley. The only person she now trusted was Bothwell.
Darnley was now expendable and everyone wanted to see the back of him: Mary hated him, the Protestant lords had been betrayed by him and Bothwell wanted to replace him as king. To further his ends, Bothwell persuaded Mary to bring back Moray and the exiled Protestants. Top 'Nothing against her honour' In NovemberBothwell met with nobles from all factions at Craigmillar Castle to discuss the Darnley problem.
They came up with two options: The crown had come to his family through a woman, and would be lost from his family through a woman.
This legendary statement came true much later—not through Mary, but through her descendant Queen Anne. From the outset, there were two claims to the regency: Beaton's claim was based on a version of the king's will that his opponents dismissed as a forgery. On 1 Julywhen Mary was six months old, the Treaty of Greenwich was signed, which promised that at the age of ten Mary would marry Edward and move to England, where Henry could oversee her upbringing.
Regent Arran resisted the move, but backed down when Beaton's armed supporters gathered at Linlithgow. The arrests caused anger in Scotland, and Arran joined Beaton and became a Catholic.
Challenges to Elizabeth's rule
English forces mounted a series of raids on Scottish and French territory. Mary's guardians, fearful for her safety, sent her to Inchmahome Priory for no more than three weeks, and turned to the French for help. On the promise of French military help, and a French dukedom for himself, Arran agreed to the marriage. In June, the much awaited French help arrived at Leith to besiege and ultimately take Haddington.
On 7 Julya Scottish Parliament held at a nunnery near the town agreed to a French marriage treaty. BeatonSetonFlemingand Livingston. Mary and Francis in Catherine de' Medici 's book of hoursc. She was considered a pretty child and later, as a woman, strikingly attractive.
Henry commented that "from the very first day they met, my son and she got on as well together as if they had known each other for a long time".