The battle of Fornovo (6 July ) was an unsuccessful attempt by an Italian army to stop Charles VIII of France during his retreat from Naples. Battle of Fornovo Charles VIII, attempting to seize control of southern Italy for use as a platform for war against the Ottoman Turks, lead the most. Nicolle, David. Fornovo France’s Bloody Fighting Retreat. Oxford: Osprey, Santosuosso, Antonio. “Anatomy of Defeat: The Battle of Fornovo in
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The French enemy who has not spared divine and human affairs labors under scarcity and hunger, as is usual in a blockade; he is weary from many marches and steep passes; surrounded on all sides by the enemy and without hope of aid, he has been so wholly forsaken by divine fate that after failing to find an occasion for flight under the preferred guise of truce he is plunged into utter desperation at events and will seek safety by the sword and make a way for himself by force.
He died two-and-a-half years after his retreat, of an accident—striking his head while passing through a doorway, he succumbed to a sudden coma several hours later. The leaders, fearing the risk, delayed and prolonged the battle.
The French had lost their treasure, all the plunder of Italy, and they moved on to Asti with a haste that appeared very close to flight. Francesco Gonzaga along with Count Bernardino Fortebraccio and another company assaulted the last line, the Count of Caiazzo the middle one, all rushing at almost the same moment against the enemy who because they were confronted with a ditch, an inaccessible rampart, the river Taro, and the thickets and shrubbery which lay between, and because it was raining, scattered and rushed headlong against the ranks of their enemy in a vast assault.
And so as is wont to happen when a time of crisis draws near, his usual assurance changed to anxiety, his earlier daring to fear, his swollen pride to humility. A few of the Greeks fought, and among them Pietro Busichio and Niccolo of Nin were wounded; the rest plundered the baggage train.
vornovo This kingdom was not acquired for me, but for all of you; I enjoy a very extensive kingdom in a long succession. Of the Latins in addition to those I have mentioned above Vincenzo Corso perished of honorable wounds; likewise Roberto Strozzi and Alessandro Beroaldo were found together in the midst of enemy corpses.
Even though we have mighty forces, the readier spirits of veteran soldiers and the fierce spirits of fresh soldiers, and each one is possessed of a longing for battle, there is nevertheless need of sagacity and military discipline, all of which things are also useless without obedience.
These the Greek soldiers at once attacked unexpectedly, turning some to flight and killing others. Some still breathed after hands and feet had been amputated, intestines collapsed, brains laid bare, so unyielding of life is nature. Views Read Edit View history. Aside from sowing tensions among the League commanders, the League army may have been in a better state compared to the French after the battle, suffering proportionately fewer casualties and possessing more fresh soldiers.
This page was last edited on 26 Decemberat Retrieved 20 March The Art of War in Italy Some ascribe this lapse to the suddenness and confusion of the battle, others to the scarcity of mercenary soldiers, who had not yet come to the camp.
Alessandro Beneditti, The Battle of Fornovo () » De Re Militari
But Gian Giacomo Trivulzio and Francesco Secco, together with the nobles, freely encouraged the spirits of the King, saying that he need not doubt that the enemy would be turned to flight by the royal name alone.
With pickaxes they cut up silver vessels of wondrous craftsmanship.
Pope Alexander VI realised that he didn’t have the military strength to resist the French, and allowed them to pass through his lands. But you, Trivulzio, proclaimed that the commander of the camp was a young man, or a boy, without military training.
This section covers chapters 29 to 60 of Book 1 of the Diaria de Bello Carolino. And the tent of the King, equipped with every luxury and evidence of wealth, fell to 1459 lowliest soldiers.
Both parties strove to present themselves as the 4195 in the battle. Some were bogged down in the swamp and slain there, some were confined by the rampart and river and drew back.
These lay in a noble death 1945 my eyes, and there was no blood, for the rain had bathed their gaping wounds. The commander Francesco Gonzaga, standing out above the others on a fresh horse, pulled his soldiers together again, and with a selected group pursued the enemy after killing a number of them, and pressing on with greater effort he captured the Bourbon bastard of royal blood and Marshal Miolans; other noble soldiers were taken by the Venetians and many were killed.
Lodovico, duke of Milan, had had almost the same report in a letter from fornofo Count of Caiazzo, and his mind was greatly disturbed; he had sent a copy of this letter to the Senate.
However, League cavalry was able to loot the French baggage train, claiminggold ducats as well as forcing most French soldiers to go without tents, dry clothes and food for the night Nicolle, None of the enemy risked fighting in single combat, but in greater numbers attacked single individuals and straightway returned to the standards.
In that battle countless baggage piles of the French, abounding in all riches, were lost; in them was found a great weight of silver and gold. The Harper Encyclopedia of Military History: He was the first to report to the Venetian proveditors that the French were greatly terrified and would doubtless turn their backs, and that therefore those should pursue for whom it is not enough to rout the enemy and to be satisfied with flight alone. This success in a small sally indicated the outcome of the whole affair.
As the French approached Alfonso abdicated in favour of his more popular son Ferdinand IIbut the new king was also unable to stop the French and was forced to flee to Sicily.
It was the first major battle of the Italian Wars. Click here to view animation.
The following evening, Doge Agostino Barbarigo and the Venetian Senate received a report in which they were told that the Venetian army had not been destroyed, but that the result of the battle was uncertain because they had many casualties and deserters, but they did not know fotnovo enemy casualties.
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