between knowledge, information, information technology and how they accelerate relationship of organizational knowledge management and information and. Effective knowledge management is becoming crucial for the survival of business organizations due to their increasing reliance on knowledge work. Information. research models integrating KM and information technology strategies for relationship between KM strategy and IT strategy and their effects on performance.
How are organizational capabilities and information technology best integrated and applied to managing knowledge? What lessons have companies learned in these endeavors?
To address these questions, I first describe the characteristics of explicit knowledge and its relationship to competitive advantage. Building on research and knowledge about the design of information products 4I describe an architecture for managing explicit knowledge.
I use that framework to derive two fundamental and complementary approaches, each of which is illustrated by case study. I conclude with a summary of key issues and lessons learned. Knowledge is commonly distinguished from data and information. Data represent observations or facts out of context, and therefore not directly meaningful. Information results from placing data within some meaningful context, often in the form of a message.
Knowledge is that which we come to believe and value based on the meaningfully organized accumulation of information messages through experience, communication or inference 5. Knowledge can be viewed both as a thing to be stored and manipulated and as a process of simultaneously knowing and acting - that is, applying expertise 6. As a practical matter, organizations need to manage knowledge both as object and process.
Knowledge can be tacit or explicit 7. Tacit knowledge is subconsciously understood and applied, difficult to articulate, developed from direct experience and action, and usually shared through highly interactive conversation, story-telling and shared experience. Explicit knowledge, in contrast, can be more precisely and formally articulated.
Therefore, although more abstract, it can be more easily codified, documented, transferred or shared. Explicit knowledge is playing an increasingly large role in organizations, and it is considered by some to be the most important factor of production in the knowledge economy 8. Imagine an organization without procedure manuals, product literature, or computer software.
Knowledge may be of several types 9each of which may be made explicit. Knowledge about something is called declarative knowledge. A shared, explicit understanding of concepts, categories, and descriptors lays the foundation for effective communication and knowledge sharing in organizations.
Knowledge of how something occurs or is performed is called procedural knowledge. Shared explicit procedural knowledge lays a foundation for efficiently coordinated action in organizations. Knowledge why something occurs is called causal knowledge. Shared explicit causal knowledge, often in the form of organizational stories, enables organizations to coordinate strategy for achieving goals or outcomes.
Knowledge also may range from general to specific General knowledge is broad, often publicly available, and independent of particular events. Specific knowledge, in contrast, is context-specific. General knowledge, its context commonly shared, can be more easily and meaningfully codified and exchanged, especially among different knowledge or practice communities.
Codifying specific knowledge so as to be meaningful across an organization requires its context to be described along with the focal knowledge. This, in turn, requires explicitly defining contextual categories and relationships that are meaningful across knowledge communities. To see how difficult and important this may be, ask people from different parts of your organization to define a customer, an order, or even your major lines of business, and see how much the responses vary Explicating Knowledge Effective performance and growth in knowledge-intensive organizations requires integrating and sharing highly distributed knowledge Although tacit knowledge develops naturally as a by-product of action, it is more easily exchanged, distributed, or combined among communities of practice by being made explicit However, appropriately explicating tacit knowledge so it can be efficiently and meaningfully shared and reapplied, especially outside the originating community, is one of the least understood aspect of knowledge management.
Yet organizations must not shy away from attempting to explicate, share and leverage tacit, specific knowledge. This suggests a more fundamental challenge, namely, determining which knowledge should be made explicit and which left tacit. The issue is important, as the balance struck between tacit and explicit knowledge can effect competitive performance.
Knowledge may be inherently tacit or may appear so because it has not yet been articulated, usually because of social constraints Articulating particular types of knowledge may not be culturally legitimate, challenging what the firm knows may not be socially or politically correct 15or the organization may be unable to see beyond its customary habits and practices And of course, making private knowledge public and accessible may result in a redistribution of power that may be strongly resisted in particular organizational cultures.
Knowledge also may remain unarticulated because of intellectual constraints in cases where organizations have no formal language or model for its articulation. Comparing the potential explicability of knowledge to whether or not it has actually been articulated defines four situations regarding the balance between tacit and explicit knowledge Figure 1.
Potentially explicable knowledge that has not been articulated represents a lost opportunity to efficiently share and leverage that knowledge. If competitors have articulated and routinized the integration and application of similar knowledge, then they may obtain a competitive advantage. In contrast, knowledge that is inherently inarticulable yet which firms attempt to make explicit may result in the essence of the knowledge being lost, and performance suffering.
Articulable knowledge that has been made explicit represents an exploited opportunity, while leaving inarticulable knowledge in its native form respects the power and limits of tacit knowledge. Both indicate appropriate management of the balance between tacit and explicit knowledge.
Organizations often do not to challenge the way knowledge is stored, treated or passed on. However, managers should not blindly accept the apparent tacitness of knowledge. Fields Cookies was able to develop process knowledge baking cookies to a level sufficiently high to be explicated and articulated in a recipe that produces cookies of consistently high quality The cookies are claimed to be almost as good as those originally baked by Debbie Fields herself.
Ray Kroc gained tremendous leverage in articulating and routinizing the process of cooking a hamburger to produce a consistent if not gourmet level of quality.
But where imagination and flexibility are important, knowledge routinization may be inappropriate. To this point, I have defined explicit knowledge, discussed some of its characteristics, and made a case for explicating knowledge. Although explicit knowledge represents only a part of the intellectual landscape of the organization, it plays a crucial role in the overall knowledge strategy of the firm.
Its management requires frameworks and well-considered architectures such as that described below. A Knowledge Management Architecture 18 The management of explicit knowledge utilizes four primary resources Figure 2: Repositories of explicit knowledge; Refineries for accumulating, refining, managing, and distributing that knowledge; Organization roles to execute and manage the refining process; and Information technologies to support those repositories and processes.
The Knowledge Repository The design of a knowledge repository reflects the two basic components of knowledge as an object: Knowledge structures provide the context for interpreting accumulated content.
If the repository is conceived as a "knowledge platform", then many different views of the content may be derived from a particular repository structure A high degree of viewing flexibility enables users to alter and combine views dynamically and interactively and to more easily apply the knowledge to new contexts and circumstances.
At this point, knowledge-as-object becomes knowledge-as-process. The basic structural element is the knowledge unit, a formally defined, atomic packet of knowledge content that can be labeled, indexed, stored, retrieved and manipulated. The format, size and content of knowledge units may vary depending on the type of explicit knowledge being stored and the context of their use.
The repository structure also includes the schemes for linking and cross-referencing knowledge units. These links may represent conceptual associations, ordered sequences, causality or other relationships depending on the type of knowledge being stored. To reflect the full range of explicit organizational knowledge, repositories should strive to record significant and meaningful concepts, categories, and definitions, declarative knowledgeprocesses, actions and sequences of events procedural knowledgerationale for actions or conclusions causal knowledgecircumstances and intentions under which the knowledge was developed and is to be applied specific contextual knowledgeand the linkages among them.
The repository should be indexed according to those concepts and categories, providing access paths that are meaningful to the organization. It should accommodate changes or additions to that knowledge e. A knowledge platform may actually consist of several repositories, each with a structure appropriate to a particular type of knowledge or content. These repositories may be logically linked to form a composite or "virtual" repository, the content of each providing context for interpreting the content of the others Figure 3.
For example, product literature, best sales practices, and competitor intelligence for a particular market might be stored separately but viewed as though contained in one repository.
The Knowledge Refinery The refinery represents the process for creating and distributing the knowledge contained in the repository. This process includes five stages: Information and knowledge is either created within the organization or can be acquired from many different internal and external sources.
Captured knowledge, before being added to the repository, is subjected to value-adding processes refining such as cleansing, labeling, indexing, sorting, abstracting, standardizing, integrating, and re-categorizing. This stage bridges upstream repository creation to downstream knowledge distribution.
This stage represents the mechanisms used to make repository content accessible. The value of knowledge is pervasively influenced by the context of its use. Capabilities should be provided for flexibly arranging, selecting, and integrating the knowledge content. Knowledge Management Roles A common weakness in knowledge management programs is the overemphasis on information technology at the expense of well-defined knowledge management roles and responsibilities.
Traditional organizational roles typically do not address either knowledge management or the cross-functional, cross-organizational process by which knowledge is created, shared and applied. The architecture presented here suggests a set of organizational roles that should be explicitly defined. Organizations are creating a Chief Knowledge Officer role to handle this responsibility. Many organizations also cluster those responsible for knowledge management into knowledge or expertise centers, each being responsible for a particular body of knowledge.
Their responsibilities typically include championing knowledge management, educating the organization, knowledge mapping, and integrating the organizational and technological resources comprising the knowledge management architecture. Additionally, explicit responsibility should be assigned for each stage of the refinery and the interfaces between them. Assigning responsibility for the seamless movement of knowledge from acquisition through use, as well as the interfaces between these stages, will help ensure that knowledge repositories will be meaningfully created and effectively used.
The Role of Information Technologies The information technology infrastructure should provide a seamless "pipeline" for the flow of explicit knowledge through the 5 stages of the refining process to enable capturing knowledge, defining, storing, categorizing, indexing and linking digital objects corresponding to knowledge units, searching for "pulling" and subscribing to "pushing" relevant content, presenting content with sufficient flexibility to render it meaningful and applicable across multiple contexts of use.
Input is captured by forms for assigning various labels, categories, and indices to each unit of knowledge. The structure is flexible enough to create knowledge units, indexed and linked using categories that reflect the structure of the contextual knowledge and the content of factual knowledge of the organization, displayed as flexible subsets via dynamically customizable views.
Effective use of information technology to communicate knowledge requires an organization to share an interpretive context. The more that communicators share similar knowledge, background and experience, the more effectively knowledge can be communicated via electronically mediated channels At one extreme, the dissemination of explicit, factual knowledge within a stable community having a high degree of shared contextual knowledge can be accomplished through access to a central electronic repository.
However, when interpretive context is moderately shared, or the knowledge exchanged is less explicit, or the community is loosely affiliated, then more interactive modes such as electronic mail or discussion databases are appropriate. When context is not well shared and knowledge is primarily tacit, communication and narrated experience is best supported with the richest and most interactive modes such as video conferencing or face-to-face conversation.
A Classification of Knowledge Management Applications Based on this knowledge management architecture, knowledge processing can be segmented into two broad classes: Together, these approaches provide a broad set of knowledge processing capabilities. They support well-structured repositories for managing explicit knowledge while enabling interaction to integrate tacit knowledge.
Integrative Applications Integrative applications exhibit a sequential flow of explicit knowledge into and out of the repository. Producers and consumers interact with the repository rather than with each other directly. The repository becomes the primary medium for knowledge exchange, providing a place for members of a knowledge community to contribute their knowledge and views.
The primary focus tends to be on the repository and the explicit knowledge it contains, rather than on the contributors, users, or the tacit knowledge they may hold.
Integrative applications vary in the extent to which knowledge producers and consumers come from the same knowledge community. At one extreme, which I label electronic publishing, the consumers readers neither directly engage in the same work nor belong to the same practice community as the producers authors.
Once published, the content tends to be stable, and those few updates that may be required are expected to originate with authors. The consumer accepts the content as is, and active feedback or modification by the user is not anticipated although provisions could be made for that to occur.
For example, the organization may produce a periodic newsletter, or the human resources department may publish its policies or a directory of employee skills and experience. At the other extreme, the producers and consumers are members of the same practice community or organizational unit. While still exhibiting a sequential flow, the repository provides a means to integrate and build on their collective knowledge.
I label these integrated knowledge-bases. A best-practices database is the most common application. Practices are collected, integrated and shared among people confronting similar problems. Regarding the organizational roles for managing integrative applications, acquisition requires knowledge creators, finders, and collectors.
Capturing verbal knowledge requires interviewers and transcribers. Documenting observed experiences requires organizational "reporters".Oracle Knowledge Management Solution Overview
Surfacing and interpreting deeply held cultural and social knowledge may require corporate anthropologists. Refining requires analysts, interpreters, abstractors, classifiers, editors, and integrators. A librarian or "knowledge curator" must manage the repository. Others must take responsibility for access, distribution and presentation. Finally, organizations may need people to train users to critically interpret, evaluate and adapt knowledge to new contexts. Interactive Applications Interactive applications are focused primarily on supporting interaction among people holding tacit knowledge.
In contrast to integrative applications, the repository is a by-product of interaction and collaboration rather than the primary focus of the application. Its content is dynamic and emergent. Interactive applications vary by the level of expertise between producers and consumers and the degree of structure imposed on their interaction.
Where formal training or knowledge transfer is the objective, the interaction tends to be primarily between instructor and student, or expert and novice, and structured around a discrete problem, assignment or lesson plan I refer to these applications as distributed learning. In contrast, interaction among those performing common practices or tasks tends to be more ad hoc or emergent.
I broadly refer to these applications as forums. They may take the form of a knowledge brokerage - an electronic discussion space where people may either search for knowledge e.
The most interactive forums support ongoing, collaborative discussions. The flow continually loops back from presentation to acquisition. With the appropriate structuring and indexing of the content, a knowledge repository can emerge. A standard categorization scheme for indexing contributions provides the ability to reapply that knowledge across the enterprise.
Interactive applications play a major role in supporting integrative applications For example, a forum can be linked to an electronic publishing application for editors to discuss the quality of the contributions, or to offer a place for readers to react to and discuss the publication.
Best practice databases typically require some degree of forum interaction, so that those attempting to adopt a practice have an opportunity to discuss its reapplication with its creators. Regarding the organizational roles for managing interactive applications, acquisition requires recruiters and facilitators to encourage and manage participation in interactive forums so that those with the appropriate expertise are contributing.
The refining, structuring, and indexing of the content often is done by the communicators themselves, using guidelines and categories built into the application, supplemented by a conference moderator. Assuring the quality of the knowledge may require quality assurance personnel such as subject matter experts and reputation brokers. Managing a conference repository over its lifecycle usually falls to a conference moderator.
Others may be required to work with users to help them become comfortable and skilled with accessing and using the application. Two Examples This section presents two cases studies of managing explicit knowledge. Buckman Labs illustrates the effective use of an interactive architecture for discussion forums to support servicing their customers TRI is a leading international provider of market information and industry analysis to information technology vendors and purchasers.
TRI employs more that analysts and annually publishes more than 15, research reports addressing over 50 distinct subject areas called research programs. The online knowledge repository comprises a standard set of knowledge units containing the executive summaries, abstracts, main text, graphics, tables, and charts making up research reports. The repository is dynamic in that research reports are being updated continuously.
Knowledge units are indexed and linked for flexible access, and users may sequentially navigate from one to the next within a report, access similar units across reports e. As technology changes, new research areas emerge that cut across TRI's traditional research programs and internal organizational boundaries.
Building repositories using a flexible, yet standard — and therefore integrable - structure has enabled TRI to respond by creating composite virtual research programs. From its repositories, TRI derives standard monthly reports and more frequent ad hoc bulletins for each research program in several electronic formats web, CD, fax, email.
TRI's refinery encompasses two stages: Analysis involves collecting, analyzing, and interpreting market information, and reporting the results. The process is similar to investigative reporting, in that analysts try to get "the story behind the numbers.
This tradeoff is one that TRI explicitly manages to foster a balance between knowledge management efficiency and speed on the one hand, and knowledge worker morale, commitment, and performance quality on the other.
Distribution of online documents is done primarily via web-enabled Lotus Notes. Digitized documents must be structured as knowledge units within a modular and flexible repository from which multiple knowledge views can be rapidly and efficiently created as new user needs arise in new contexts. Additionally, a robust, seamless and scalable technology infrastructure has been key to enabling the flexibility required for an integrative knowledge management refinery. It provides a wide range of user-defined views of rich, multimedia documents, embeds hyperlinks, and provides an efficient yet flexible distribution channel.
Many firms have started the management of their knowledge and intellectual capitals actively in all areas . Although large firms in the U. Iran on e-Commerce with focus on e-Business classified based on initiatives in the knowledge results of applying various options of strategic management, many firms have failed in knowledge management and the proposed deploying it due to various reasons such as lack model. The second section presents the of focus on modem technologies, inappropriate methodology, followed by a description of knowledge management strategies, or hypothesis test results.
Finally, the conclusion, unawareness of the consequences. The concept limitations and further research lines are of unawareness of the consequences would have presented. Knowledge Management Although there is not a clear model for the Knowledge management is related to changes with considerable effect on knowledge organizational processes and infrastructures for management, it is obvious that creating the application, creation and sharing the knowledge appropriate technological infrastructures would in order to formulate the strategy and strategic be of great benefit to successful knowledge decision making .
Technology allows the knowledge management strategy is linked to business to be extracted from its owners' minds. When managing their knowledge, firms technology, one could accommodate such should consider a world with its perspective and knowledge in regular formats and transfer it to use knowledge management tools to implement other internal members and trade partners of the it.
The entire organization should try to direct organization worldwide. Knowledge the knowledge management because it is a core management is referred to as the distinguishing for growth and competition .
An essential factor of the organizations. Higher product element for the organizations is to get balance performance and more rapid response to between knowledge exploration and exploitation changing markets are some of knowledge that is, organizations should balance between management's advantages.
But it should be knowledge creation, exploration or acquisition noted that when applying knowledge and its refmement, reuse or focus on management for improving the organizational productivity in knowledge management .
Zack performance, it is undeniable to consider the provides a typology of knowledge strategies individuals as the most important organizational among individuals and knowledge formulation capital. The effect of knowledge management based on the obvious distinction between plans on the levels of technology application and explicit and tacit knowledge and distinct use of organization's internal performance has been IT .
The codification strategy begins from an rarely analyzed and only a few empirical papers individual, expands and is independent of that have examined the link between knowledge and individual, and is used for various purposes performance.
Knowledge Management and Information Technologies
The results are based on an of knowledge management on new technologies empirical study of banks in Khuzestan development and firm's internal performance Province and the design of a structural equations have been taken into account.
Effects of Knowledge Management on plans in order to achieve higher levels of Modern Technology efficiency, profitability and effectiveness. The Innovation consists of searching, discovery, present paper is organized in five sections. The testing, and development of technologies, first section examines the concept of knowledge products, services and new organizational management; the second section presents the structures. Iran on e-Commerce with focus on e-Business dependent of knowledge, especially the tacit one 2.
Effect of Knowledge Management on . By transforming the general knowledge into Organization's Internal Performance specific, the new and available knowledge leads One of the determinants of the success of to the creation and development of products, knowledge management plans is the services and processes .
Organizational performance OP is a A knowledge management system provides multifaceted concept in relation with the firm's creativity in order to improve innovation position compared with its competitors.
A through quicker access to and movement comprehensive view of the firm's performance towards new knowledge . Also, knowledge is not limited to its financial perspective but management is an important success factor for includes other value criteria as well. Knowledge the development of new technologies. The role management affects the OP in three ways: Many organizations use and, 3 Internal performance, which is linked to technology in a specific form or various forms the employees' individual capabilities for their knowledge management.
IT is often employees' classification, satisfaction and used for the storage and transmission of explicit creativity. Receiving the effect on organizations' internal performance.
Codification in knowledge management for effective knowledge management is critical.
Personalization in knowledge management ICT leads to the growth of knowledge and has a significant relationship with the affects it directly. Thus, the present paper organizations' internal performance.
Codification knowledge management has H5. Information technology application has a a significant relationship with technology significant relationship with the organizations' application. Personalization knowledge management Fig. I illustrates the research model and a has a significant relationship with the summary of hypotheses being tested in the technology application. Iran on e-Commerce with focus on e-Business Methodology were returned approx. The data were gathered The present paper is an applied study in terms during Sept.
On the other hand, given the data questionnaire included closed-ended items. Cronbach's alpha is above 0. Such methods level suggested by researchers, 7-point Likert include factor analysis and SEM. The data were scale was used for responding the questions and collected using a questionnaire. The SEM technique was used Chi-square for this model was high The Significance level was less than 0.
Since according to the expressed sample size: Data analysis In the present study, the error level of 9.