Population and environment: a global challenge - Curious
Subjects: social studies, geography, and world history. This means that there were 49 people in the dependent ages for every persons in the working ages . . The relationship between population growth and environmental degradation . The relationship between environmental problems and population For most of our existence the human population has grown very The majority of studies estimate that the Earth's capacity is at or beneath 8 billion people. A detailed analysis of our data supported by the studies of others and current In summary, investigation of human adaptation to the environment, one of the most . and Spanò emphasized the association between the changing environment and A unique combination of geography, seasonal and local differences in air .
Concentrations of TB among immigrants in non-traditional destination states may suggest poor agricultural working conditions, barriers to accessing healthcare, and concentrations of refugee groups in unhealthy areas. Africa's population is estimated to reach two billion by As countries get richer, they experience a demographic transition.
Africa's people are its biggest asset; one day, its workforce could be as robust and dynamic as Asia's. But there is nothing inevitable about the ability to cash in the demographic dividend.
For that to happen, Africa will have to choose the right policies and overcome its many problems.
Over the next decade, the number of people aged 60 years and over is expected to rise substantially, and most of the increase will occur in developing countries. Globally, the number of older persons is expected to exceed the number of children in for the first time.
Economically, population aging affects growth, savings, investments, consumption, labor markets, social security systems, taxation, and inter-generational transfers. Socially, it influences family structures, housing demands, migration trends, and the epidemiology of diseases and the need for healthcare service.
They remain separate both in design and implementation from such fertility-related programmes as nutrition, public health, mother and child care, and preschool education that take place in the same area and that are often funded by the same agency.
Such services must therefore be integrated with other efforts to improve access to health care and education.
The clinical support needed for most modern contraceptive methods makes family planning services heavily dependent on the health system. Some governments have successfully combined population programme: This integration increases motivation, improves access, and raises the effectiveness of investments in family planning.
Population Studies - The Environmental Literacy Council
Zimbabwe is one nation that has successfully integrated its family planning efforts not only with its rural health services but also with efforts to improve women's abilities to organize group activities and earn money through their own labour. The government's initial efforts were aimed less at limiting population growth than at assisting women to space births in the interests of mother and child health and at helping infertile women to bear children.
But gradually families have begun to use the contraceptives made available for child spacing as a way to limit fertility. Zimbabwe now leads sub-Saharan Africa in the use of modern contraceptive methods. Managing Distribution and Mobility Population distribution across a country's different regions is influenced by the geographical spread of economic activity and opportunity. Most countries are committed in theory to balancing regional development, but are rarely able to do this in practice.
Governments able to spread employment opportunities throughout their nations and especially through their countrysides will thus limit the rapid and often uncontrolled growth of one or two cities. China's effort to support village-level industries in the countryside is perhaps the most ambitious of this sort of national programme.
Human Population: Lesson Plans – Population Reference Bureau
Migration from countryside to city is not in itself a bad thing; it is part of the process of economic development and diversification.
The issue is not so much the overall rural urban shift but the distribution of urban growth between large metropolitan cities and smaller urban settlements. A commitment to rural development implies more attention to realizing the development potential of all regions, particularly those that are ecologically disadvantaged See Chapter 6.
This would help reduce migration from these areas due to lack of opportunities. But governments should avoid going too far in the opposite direction, encouraging people to cove into sparsely populated areas such as tropical moist forests, where the land may not be able to provide sustainable livelihoods.
Demographic phenomena constitute the heart of the African Development problematique. They are the data that lead most analysts to project a continuing and deepening crisis in Africa. There is no doubt of the imperative and urgent need for a far reaching population policy to be adopted and vigorously implemented by African governments.
One issue of relevance that requires further research is the use of the tax system as a means for controlling population growth and discouraging rural-urban migration. To slow down population growth, should families without children be given a tax incentive or tax break? Should a tax penalty be imposed for each child after a fixed number of children, considering that the tax system has not solved the population migration problem? From Liability to Asset When a population exceeds the carrying capacity of the available resources, it can become a liability in efforts to improve people's welfare.
But talking of population just as numbers glosses over an important point: People are also a creative resource, and this creativity is an asset societies must tap. To nurture and enhance that asset, people's physical well-being must be improved through better nutrition, health care, and so on. And education must be provided to help them become more capable and creative, skilful, productive, and better able to deal with day-to-day problems.
All this has to be achieved through access to and participation in the processes of sustainable development.
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I noticed that you have tried to separate religion from the technological side of life. Is that not exactly, the mistake in the West in developing technology, without ethics, without religion? If that is the case, and we have the chance to develop a new direction, should we not advise the group on technology to pursue a different kind of technology which has as its base not only the rationality, but also the spiritual aspect?
Is this a dream or is this something we cannot avoid? Good health is the foundation of human welfare and productivity. Hence a broad-based health policy is essential for sustainable development. In the developing world, the critical problems of ill health are closely related to environmental conditions and development problems. Malaria is the most important parasitic disease in the tropics, and its prevalence is closely related to wastewater disposal and drainage. Large dams and irrigation systems have led to sharp increases in the incidence of schistosomiasis snail fever in many areas.
Inadequacies in water supply and sanitation are direct causes of other widespread and debilitating diseases such as diarrhoeas and various worm infestations. Though much has been achieved in recent years, 1. In this sense, they really require a developmental solution.
In the developing world, the number of water taps nearby is a better indication of the health of a community than is the number of hospital beds. Other examples of links between development, environmental conditions, and health include air pollution and the respiratory illnesses it brings, the impact of housing conditions on the spread of tuberculosis, the effects of carcinogens and toxic substances, and the exposure to hazards in the workplace and elsewhere.