English Lexicology for Students and All: Etymology
The term native denotes words which belong to the original English stock family, relations, natural phenomena and planets, animals, qualities and The morphological structure of the word may also betray the for-eign origin of . finish , corps, alcazar, commedia dell'arte, money, souvenir, bacillus, pas. there is also a close relationship between lexicology and stylistics, which is concerned There are also phonetic and morphological variants. .. e.g.: Latin and Greek nouns retain their plural: bacillus - bacilli, phenomenon. Lexicology as a linguistic discipline. Inflectional and derivational morphology. Semantic relationships between lexical units (sense relations): polysemy, homonymy, hyponymy, synonymy and antonymy (complementarity . bacillus - bacilli.
Many lexical archaisms belong to the poetic style: Sometimes the root of the word remains and the affix is changed, then the old affix is considered to be a morphemic archaism, e. Assimilation of a loan word — a partial or total conformation to the phonetical, graphical and morphological standards of the English language and its semantic system. Asyntactical compounds —compounds whose components are placed in the order that contradicts the rules of English syntax, e.
Barbarisms —unassimilated borrowings or loan words, used by English people in conversation or in writing, printed in italics, or in inverted commas, e. Blendingor telescoping —formation of a word by merging parts of words not morphemes into one new word; the result is a blend, fusion, e. Borrowings also loan words —words taken over from another language and partially or totally modified in phonetic shape, spelling, paradigm or meaning according to the standards of the English language, e.
Bound form stemor morpheme —a form morpheme which must always be combined with another morpheme i. Briticism —a lexical unit peculiar to the British variant of the English language, e. Clipping —formation of a word by cutting off one or several syllables of a word, e.
Cockney —the regional dialect of London marked by some deviations in pronunciation and few in vocabulary and syntax, e. Coding in lexicology — replacing words or morphemes by conventional word- class symbols, e.
Cognates cognate words words descended from a common ancestor, e. Collocability —see lexical valency. Collocation —habitual lexico-phraseological association of a word in a language with other particular words in a sentence, e. Colloquial of words, phrases, style — belonging to, suitable for, or related to ordinary; not formal or literary conversation, e.
Combinability occurrence-range, collocability, valency — the ability of linguistic elements to combine in speech.
Complementary distribution —is said to take place when two linguistic variants cannot appear in the same environment i. Compound-derivativeor derivational compound —a word formed simultaneously by composition and derivation, e.
Compound wordsor compounds —words consisting of at least two stems or root morphemes which occur in the language as free forms, e. Connotational meaning — the emotive charge and the stylistic value of the word. Content —the main substance or meaning, e.
Context —the minimum stretch of discourse necessary and sufficient to determine which of the possible meanings of a polysemantic word is used. Contrastive distribution —characterizes different morphemes, i.
Conversion root formation, functional change, zero-derivation —the formation of a new word solely by changing its paradigm or the method of forming a new word by changing an existing one into another part of speech without any derivational affixes or other external changesso that the resulting word is homonymous with the original one, e.
Convertive prefix —a prefix which transfers words to a different part of speech, e. Contextual synonyms —words synonyms similar in meaning only under some specific distributional conditions in some contextse.
Introduction to Morphology and lexicology Unit 1: What is lexicology?
The root in English is very often homonymous with the word. It is one of the most typical features of the English language. Roots are called productive if they are capable of producing new words. Affixes may be subdivided into prefixes, suffixes and infixes.
A suffix is a morpheme following the root and forming a new word. A prefix is a morpheme standing before the root and modifying meaning. Give the morphematic division root, prefix, suffix of these words: They may be characterized by a high lexical and grammatical valency ability to combine with other wordshigh frequency and developed polysemy.
They are often monosyllabic, have great word building power and enter a number of set expressions.
Computational lexicology, morphology and syntax - ppt download
Partially assimilated words a. Loan words not assimilated semantically E. Loan words not assimilated grammatically E. Loan words not assimilated phonetically or graphically.
The words from other languages for which there are corresponding English equivalents are so-called barbarisms. Derivation Compounding Conversion Quantitative changes 10 Derivation Derivation is a kind of word-formation when a new word is formed by adding a derivational morpheme usually suffix or prefix to the root.
Suffixation is a kind of word-formation when a new word is formed by adding a suffix to the root. Prefixation is a kind of word-formation when a new word is formed by adding a prefix to the root. The group of class-changing prefixes is rather small, e. Marginal Cases of Conversion Cases of formations by shift of stress are neither regular, nor productive.
This type of word-formation is in English highly productive.