How did World War I help to bring about the Russian Revolution? | Socratic
What was the effect of the Russian Revolution on World War I? Therefore, the revolution did not really end up making much of a difference in the This meant, of course, that they had to divide their military strength between the two fronts. A first Russian revolution in that stemmed from labor unrest, student unrest, The connection between these two is that World War I served as a catalyst for. The Russian Revolution took place in , during the final phase of World War history: it affected economics, social structure, culture, international relations, Lenin's government immediately pulled Russia out of World War I, changing a confrontation between the Soviet Union and the United States took center stage.
Their involvement in the war would soon prove disastrous for the Russian Empire. Militarily, imperial Russia was no match for industrialized Germany, and Russian casualties were greater than those sustained by any nation in any previous war. Food and fuel shortages plagued Russia as inflation mounted.
Russian Revolution - HISTORY
The economy was hopelessly disrupted by the costly war effort. Czar Nicholas left the Russian capital of Petrograd St. Petersburg in to take command of the Russian Army front.
During this time, her controversial advisor, Grigory Rasputinincreased his influence over Russian politics and the royal Romanov family. By then, most Russians had lost faith in the failed leadership of the czar.
Government corruption was rampant, the Russian economy remained backward and Nicholas repeatedly dissolved the Duma, the toothless Russian parliament established after the revolution, when it opposed his will. Moderates soon joined Russian radical elements in calling for an overthrow of the hapless czar.
- Russian Revolution
Demonstrators clamoring for bread took to the streets of Petrograd. Supported by huge crowds of striking industrial workers, the protesters clashed with police but refused to leave the streets. On March 11, the troops of the Petrograd army garrison were called out to quell the uprising. In some encounters, the regiments opened fire, killing demonstrators, but the protesters kept to the streets and the troops began to waver. The Duma formed a provisional government on March The coup failed, but had two important consequences: The only winners were the Bolsheviks, with Lenin at their head, who were able to topple Kerensky and take power in the October Revolution of without significant resistance from either the government or the army.
With regard to the first of these, a 'Decree on Peace' 26 October was dashed off by Lenin, calling upon all belligerents to end the slaughter of World War One.
Not that Lenin was a pacifist: Trotsky tried to delay matters and to inculcate revolution in central Europe by refusing the harsh terms presented to him.
BBC - History - World Wars: War and Revolution in Russia -
When Germany, however, merely resumed its invasion of Russia on the Eastern Front, pushing further east in five days of February than it had in the previous three years the German soldiers, to Trotsky's consternation, continued to obey their officersthe Bolsheviks were forced to sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on 3 March This punitive treaty effectively handed over Finland, Poland, the Baltic provinces, Ukraine and Transcaucasia to the Central Powers, together with one-third of the old empire's population, one-third of its agricultural land and three-quarters of its industries.
Outraged by this, the anti-Bolshevik Russians who had remained loyal to the Allies now took up arms in earnest against the Bolsheviks. They were actively assisted by Allied forces in Russia, who hoped to rebuild the Eastern Front.
The Reds were able to take advantage of internal lines of communication and could utilise the railways, arsenals and the economy of the most populous provinces of the former empire. In this way they managed to arm, man and manoeuvre an army that by had grown to almost five million soldiers. The Whites, in contrast, never commanded forces totalling more thanmen at one time, were separated from each other by huge distances, and were based around the less developed peripheries of Russia.
Also, crucially, the Whites underestimated the Bolsheviks' capacity to resist. The White armies, in contrast, exhibited only brutality, venality, disorder It still seems surprising that Trotsky was able to fashion a Red Army more effective than that of the experienced White generals ranged against him. He, however, enjoyed the material advantages mentioned, and he also introduced some revolutionary innovations: He also used terror most ruthlessly.
The White armies, in contrast, exhibited only brutality, venality, disorder and a lack of political and military direction.
How did World War I help to bring about the Russian Revolution?
Even their most effective fighters, the Cossacks, were more interested in booty and in securing their own regional autonomy than in driving Lenin from the Kremlin.
Top Allied intervention Despite their strength in Russia itself, the Reds were internationally isolated, but neither did the Whites enjoy unlimited Allied support. The liberal British leader Lloyd George, the socialist French prime minister Clemenceau and the American Democratic president Woodrow Wilson were no friends of Lenin - but neither were they particularly enamoured of the White generals, whom they suspected of reactionary aims.
Liberty, Equality and Fraternity: That motivation disappeared on 11 November Moreover, none of the western powers had any great interest in helping to build a united Russia - they preferred to keep that huge country weak - and in any case, they had enough on their plates in With domestic war weariness, the Paris Peace Conference, the division of the German and Ottoman Empires, and the economic crises of central Europe to contend with, they had no wish to sink further into the Russian quagmire.
War and Revolution in Russia 1914 - 1921
The only power with the capacity to intervene effectively in Russia was Japan, but with memories of the Russo-Japanese War of still fresh, her intervention was unlikely to be welcomed by the Russians.
And after the armistice, most Allied efforts were directed towards finding an honourable way out of Russia, rather than a means of more forcefully intervening. It was this victory that helped forge post-tsarist Russia's self-image Nevertheless, the Red Army's victory over what became characterised under Stalin as 'The Three Campaigns of the Entente' a loaded reference to the efforts of Kolchak, Denikin and Iudenich, who were portrayed as being 'puppets' of western capitalismin a civil war that cost perhaps ten million lives, assumed a hallowed place in Soviet and Russian history.
It was this victory that helped forge post-tsarist Russia's self-image as a strong country that had stood up to the bullying of the west, and that lay at the root of the Cold War. Even Gorbachev, often seen as a friend of the west, was prone to mentioning it; and it cannot be far from President Putin's mind as events unfold in the Middle East.