Socialisation & Social Control by Stephen Smith on Prezi
Socialization is a process and social control is an outcome. We socialize members of social systems.. families, schools, churches, communities. Social control theory argues that relationships, commitments, values, and beliefs Socialization refers to the lifelong process of inheriting, interpreting, and that all choices are constrained by social relations and contracts between parties. relationships, if any, between art or representations of life and social behaviour? Why is it Segal Censorship, social control and socialization another, but in so.
In a criminal gangon the other hand, a stronger sanction applies in the case of someone threatening to inform to the police of illegal activity. Powerful ideological, economic and religious lobbyists have often used school systems and centralized electronic communications to influence public opinion.
Historically[ edit ] Social control developed together with civilization, as a rational measure against the uncontrollable forces of nature, which tribal organisations were at prey to, within archaic tribal societies.
The word crime became part of the vocabulary of the English language via Old Frenchduring the Middle Agesand within the Middle English of the language. As Auguste Comte instituted sociologyalready certain thinkers predicted the discontinuation of a perceived false consciousness intrinsic to religious belief.
Nevertheless, within the twentieth century, social scientists presumed that religion was still a principal factor of social control. Historically, homosexuality has been criminalised. In modern times, this is no longer an offence and this is due to shifts in society's values. Howerever, there are still laws regarding age of consent and incest, as these are still deemed as issues in society that require means of control.
If people do contribute, they are rewarded, if they don't they are punished. Mancur Olson gave rise to the concept in its first instance c. The Logic of Collective Action. These are, confrontational control, such as riot control and crowd controlpreventative measures to deter non-normal behaviors, which is legislation outlining expected boundaries for behavior, and measures complementary to preventative measures, which amount to punishment of criminal offences.
These are just a few of the new social control techniques cities use to displace certain individuals to the margins of society. The first is the ability to spatially constrain individuals in their own city. Defying any of the above statutes is a criminal offense resulting in possible incarceration. Homeless individuals generally frequent parks since the area provides benches for sleeping, public washrooms, occasional public services, and an overall sense of security by being near others in similar conditions.
Impression management A term used by Goffman to describe the efforts of individuals to influence how others perceive them. Incest Sexual intercourse with close family members. Incest taboo The prohibition of sexual intercourse between fathers and daughters, mothers and sons, and brothers and sisters. Income The sum of money wages and salaries earnings plus income other than earnings.
Independent variable The variable whose occurrence or change results in the occurrence or change of another variable; the hypothesized cause of something else. Individualism A belief in individual rights and responsibilities.
Induction Reasoning from the particular to the general. Industrialization The shift within a nation's economy from a primarily agricultural base to a manufacturing base.
Industrialized societies Societies that rely on mechanized production, rather than on human or animal labor, as the primary means of subsistence.
Inflation An increase in the supply of money in circulation that exceeds the rate of economic growth, making money worth less in relation to the goods and services it can buy. Informal sanction A social reward or punishment that is given informally through social interaction, such as an approving smile or a disapproving frown.
Innovation The discovery or invention of new ideas, things, or methods; a source of cultural change. Instinct A genetically determined behavior triggered by specific conditions or events. Institution of science The social communities that share certain theories and methods aimed at understanding the physical and social worlds.
Institutionalization of science The establishment of careers for practicing scientists in major social institutions. Institutions The patterned and enduring roles, statuses, and norms that have formed around successful strategies for meeting basic social needs.
Instrumental A type of role that involves problem-solving or task-oriented behavior in group or interpersonal relationships. Instrumental leader A group leader whose role is to keep the group's attention directed to the task at hand.
Interest group A group of people who work to influence political decisions affecting them. Intergenerational mobility A vertical change of social status from one generation to the next. Interlocking directorates The practice of overlapping memberships on corporate boards of directors. Intermittent reinforcement In learning theory, the provision of a reward sometimes but not always when a desired behavior is shown. Internalization The process of taking social norms, roles, and values into one's own mind.
Interpretive approach One of the major theoretical perspectives in sociology; focuses on how individuals make sense of the world and react to the symbolic meanings attached to social life.
Intragenerational mobility A vertical change of social status experienced by an individual within his or her own lifetime. Invention An innovation in material or nonmaterial culture, often produced by combining existing cultural elements in new ways; a source of cultural change. IQ intelligence quotient test A standardized set of questions or problems designed to measure verbal and numerical knowledge and reasoning.
Keynesian economics The economic theory advanced by John Maynard Keynes, which holds that government intervention, through deficit spending, may be necessary to maintain high levels of employment. Kinship Socially defined family relationships, including those based on common parentage, marriage, or adoption. Labeling theory A theory of deviance that focuses on the process by which some people are labeled deviant by other people and thus take on deviant identities rather than on the nature of the behavior itself.
Labor-market segmentation The existence of two or more distinct labor markets, one of which is open only to individuals of a particular gender or ethnicity. Laissez-faire economics The economic theory advanced by Adam Smith, which holds that the economic system develops and functions best when left to market forces, without government intervention.
Language Spoken or written symbols combined into a system and governed by rules. Law The system of formalized rules established by political authorities and backed by the power of the state for the purpose of controlling or regulating social behavior. Learning theory In psychology, the theory that specific human behaviors are acquired or forgotten as a result of the rewards or punishments associated with them.
Legal protection The protection of minority-group members through the official policy of a governing unit. Legitimate In reference to power, the sense by people in a situation that those who are exercising power have the right to do so. Lesbian A woman who is emotionally, erotically, and physically attracted to other women. Life chances The probabilities of an individual having access to or failing to have access to various opportunities or difficulties in society.
Life course The biological and social sequence of birth, growing up, maturity, aging, and death. Life-course analysis An examination of the ways in which different stages of life influence socialization and behavior. Life expectancy The average years of life anticipated for people born in a particular year. Life-style Family, child-bearing, and educational attitudes and practices; personal values; type of residence; consumer, political, and civic behavior; religion. Life table A statistical table that presents the death rate and life expectancy of each of a series of age-sex categories for a particular population.
Line job A job that is part of the central operations of an organization rather than one that provides support services for the operating structure. Lobbying The process of trying to influence political decisions so they will be favorable to one's interests and goals.
Location In Kanter's view, a person's position in an organization with respect to having control over decision making. Looking-glass self The sense of self an individual derives from the way others view and treat him or her.
Macro level An analysis of societies that focuses on large-scale institutions, structures, and processes. Magic According to Malinowski, "a practical art consisting of acts which are only means to a definite end expected to follow.
Marriage A social institution that recognizes and approves the sexual union of two or more individuals and includes a set of mutual rights and obligations. Marriage rate Number of marriages in a year per single women 15 to 44 years old. Marriage squeeze A situation in which the eligible individuals of one sex outnumber the supply of potential marriage partners of the other sex.
Marxian approach A theory that uses the ideas of Karl Marx and stresses the importance of class struggle centered around the social relations of economic production. Mass hysteria Widely felt fear and anxiety. Mass media Widely disseminated forms of communication, such as books, magazines, radio, television, and movies. Matthew effect The social process whereby one advantage an individual has is likely to lead to additional advantages.
Mean, arithmetic The sum of a set of mathematical values divided by the number of values; a measure of central tendency in a series of data. Median The number that cuts a distribution of figures in half; a positional measure of central tendency in a series of data.
Medicaid A federal-state matching program that provides medical assistance to certain low income persons. Medicare A federal health insurance program. Individuals are eligible if they receive Social Security benefits, federal disability benefits, or sometimes if they have end-stage kidney disease. Method of comparison An approach that compares one subgroup or society with another one for the purpose of understanding social differences. Methodology The rules, principles, and practices that guide the collection of evidence and the conclusions drawn from it.
Metropolitan Statistical Area MSA A geographical area containing either one city with 50, or more residents or an urban area of at least 50, inhabitants and a total population of at leastexcept in New England where the required total is 75, Micro level An analysis of societies that focuses on small-scale process, such as how individuals interact and how they attach meanings to the social actions of others.
Migration The relatively permanent movement of people from one area to another. Millenarian movements Social movements based on the expectation that society will be suddenly transformed through supernatural intervention. Minority group Any recognizable racial, religious, ethnic, or social group that suffers from some disadvantage resulting from the action of a dominant group with higher social status and greater privileges. Mode The value that occurs most often in a series of mathematical values.
Modeling Copying the behavior of admired people. Modernization The economic and social transformation that occurs when a traditional agricultural society becomes highly industrialized. Monopoly The exclusive control of a particular industry, market, service, or commodity by a single organization. Mores Strongly held social norms, a violation of which causes a sense of moral outrage.
Mortality rate The number of deaths per thousand in a population.
An Introduction to Sociology
Multinational corporation A corporation that locates its operations in a number of nations. Multiple-nuclei theory A theory of urban development holding that cities develop around a number of different centers, each with its own special activities.
Nation A relatively autonomous political grouping that usually shares a common language and a particular geography. Nation-state A social organization in which political authority overlaps a cultural and geographical community. Negative sanctions Actions intended to deter or punish unwanted social behaviors.
Negotiation A form of social interaction in which two or more parties in conflict or competition arrive at a mutually satisfactory agreement. Network See Social network. Nomadic Societies that move their residences from place to place. Nonverbal communication Visual and other meaningful symbols that do not use language.
Norm A shared rule about acceptable or unacceptable social behavior. Normal science A term used by Kuhn to describe research based on one or more past scientific achievements that are accepted as a useful foundation for further study.
Nuclear family A family form consisting of a married couple and their children. Objectivity Procedures researchers follow to minimize distortions in observation or interpretation due to personal or social values.
Occupation A position in the world of work that involves specialized knowledge and activities. Occupational segregation The concentration of workers by gender or ethnicity into certain jobs but not others. Oligarchy The rule of the many by the few. Oligopoly The control of a particular industry, market, service, or commodity by a few large organizations. Open system In organizational theory, the degree to which an organization is open to and dependent on its environment.
Operationalization In research, the actual procedures or operations conducted to measure a variable. Opportunity In an organization, the potential that a particular position contains for the expansion of work responsibilities and rewards. Organization A social group deliberately formed to pursue certain values and goals.
Organizational ritualism A form of behavior in organizations, particularly in bureaucracies, in which people follow the rules and regulations so closely that they forget the purpose of those rules and regulations.
Organizational waste The inefficient use of ideas, expertise, money, or material in an organization. Panic A frightened response by an aggregate of people to an immediate threat. Paradigm In the sociology of science, a coherent tradition of scientific law, theory, and assumptions that forms a distinct approach to problems. Parallel marriage When husband and wife both work and share household tasks.
Participant observation A research method in which the researcher does observation while taking part in the activities of the social group being studied. Pastoral societies Societies in which the raising and herding of animals such as sheep, goats, and cows is the primary means of subsistence.
Patriarchal family A form of family organization in which the father is the formal head of the family. Peer group Friends and associates of about the same age and social status.
Play Spontaneous activity undertaken freely for its own sake yet governed by rules and often characterized by an element of make-believe. Pluralism In ethnic relations, the condition that exists when both majority and minority groups value their distinct cultural identities, and at the same time seek economic and political unity.
In political sociology, the view that society is composed of competing interest groups, with power diffused among them. Political economy model A theory of land use that emphasizes the role of political and economic interests. Political order The institutionalized system of acquiring and exercising power.
Difference between Socialization and Social Change
Political party An organized group of people that seeks to control or influence political decisions through legal means. Population In demography, all the people living in a given geographic area. In research, the total number of cases with a particular characteristic. Population exclusion The efforts of a society to prevent ethnically different groups from joining it. Population transfer The efforts of a dominant ethnic group to move or remove members of a minority ethnic group from a particular area.
Positive sanctions Rewards for socially desired behavior. Positivist An approach to explaining human action that does not take into account the individual's interpretation of the situation.
Postindustrial society A term used by Daniel Bell to refer to societies organized around knowledge and planning rather than around industrial production.
Power The capacity of an individual group to control or influence the behavior of others, even in the face of opposition. Power elite According to Mills, a closely connected group of the corporate rich, political leaders, and military commanders who decide most key social and political issues. Prejudice A "prejudged" unfavorable attitude toward the members of a particular group, who are assumed to possess negative traits.
Prestige A social recognition, respect, and deference accorded individuals or groups based on their social status. Primary deviance Deviant behavior that is invisible to others, short- lived, or unimportant, and therefore does not contribute to the public labeling of an individual as being deviant. Primary economic sector The sector of an economy in which natural resources are gathered or extracted. Primary group A social group characterized by frequent face-to-face interaction, the commitment and emotional ties members feel for one another, and relative permanence.
Principle of cumulative advantage A process whereby the positive features of some institutions help to generate further benefits for them. Privatization The tendency of families in industrial societies to turn away from the community and workplace toward a primary focus on privacy, domesticity, and intimacy.
Processes of socialization Those interactions that convey to persons being socialized how they are to speak, behave, think, and feel. Profession AIR occupation that rests on a theoretical body of knowledge and thus requires specialized training usually recognized by the granting of a degree or credential.
Projection A psychological process of attributing ones own unacceptable feelings or desires to other people to avoid guilt and self-blame. Property The rights and obligations a group or individual has in relation to an object, resource, or activity.
Proposition A statement about how variables are related to each other. Prostitution The selling of sexual favors. Race A classification of humans into groups based on distinguishable physical characteristics that may form the basis for significant social identities.
Racism The institutionalized domination of one racial group by another. Random sample A sample of units drawn from a larger population in such a way that every unit has a known and equal chance of being selected. Range The total spread of values in a set of figures.
Rank Place in a social hierarchy. Rank differentiation See Differentiation, rank. Rape A completed sexual assault by a male, usually upon a female, although sometimes upon another male. Rate of natural increase The difference between birth and death rates, excluding immigration. Rationalization The process of subjecting social relationships to calculation and administration. Real values The values people consider truly important, as evident in their behavior and how they spend their time and money.
Rebellion In anomie theory, a form of deviance that occurs when individuals reject culturally valued means and goals and substitute new means and goals. In political sociology, the expression of opposition to an established authority. Reference group A social group whose standards and opinions are used by an individual to help define or evaluate beliefs, values, and behaviors.
Reform movement A type of social movement that accepts the status quo but seeks certain specific social reforms. Regressive movement A type of social movement whose aim is to move the social world back to where members believe it was at an earlier time. Relative poverty The condition of having much less income than the average person in society, even if one can afford the necessities of life.
Religion A set of shared beliefs and rituals common to a special community and focusing on the sacred and supernatural. Religious movement An organized religious group with the primary goal of changing existing religious institutions.
Research design The specific plan for conducting a research study, including sampling, measurement, and data analysis. Resocialization The process of socializing people away from a group or activity in which they are involved. Resource mobilization theory The theory that social movements are affected by their ability to marshal various key resources. Retreatism In anomie theory, a form of deviance that occurs when individuals abandon culturally valued means and goals. Revolution A large-scale change in the political leadership of a society and the restructuring of major features of that society.
Revolutionary movement A type of social movement whose aim is to reorganize existing society completely. Riot A destructive and sometimes violent collective outburst. Rising expectations A situation in which people feel that past hardships should not have to be suffered in the future.
Ritual In the sociology of religion, the rules of conduct concerning behavior in the presence of the sacred. Intended to produce feelings of reverence, awe, and group identity. Ritualism In anomie theory, a form of deviance in which individuals lose sight of socially valued goals but conform closely to socially prescribed means.
Rival hypothesis An explanation that competes with the original hypothesis in a study. Role To functionalists, the culturally prescribed and socially patterned behaviors associated with particular social positions. For interactionists, the effort to mesh the demands of a social position with one's own identity. Role accumulation Adding more statuses and roles to the ones an individual already has.
Role conflict A situation in which two or more social roles make incompatible demands on a person. Role exit The process of leaving a role that is central to one's identity and building an identity in a new role while also taking into account one's prior role.
Role expectations Commonly shared norms about how a person is supposed to behave in a particular role. Role performance The behaviors of a person performing a certain social role. Role set The cluster of roles that accompanies a particular status. Rowdyism Generalized interpersonal violence or property destruction occurring at spectator events.
Ruling class A small class that controls the means of economic production and dominates political decisions. Rumor A report that is passed informally from one person to another without firm evidence. Sample survey A systematic method of collecting information from respondents, using personal interviews or written questionnaires.
Sanction A social reward or punishment for approved or disapproved behavior; can be positive or negative, formal or informal. Scapegoating Blaming a convenient but innocent person or group for one's trouble or guilt.
Science An approach used to obtain reliable knowledge about the physical and social worlds, based on systematic empirical observations; the knowledge so obtained. Scientific productivity Making new discoveries, confirming or disconfirming theoretical hypotheses through experimentation and other types of research, and publishing the results of that research.
Scientific revolution The dramatic overthrow of one intellectual paradigm by another. Secondary deviance Behavior discovered by others and publicly labeled by them as deviant. Secondary economic sector The sector of an economy in which raw materials are turned into manufactured goods. Secondary group A social group bound together for the accomplishment of common tasks, with few emotional ties among members.
Sect An exclusive, highly cohesive group of ascetic religious believers. Sects usually last longer and are more institutionalized than cults. Sector theory A theory of urban development explaining that cities develop in wedge-shaped patterns following transportation systems. Secularization The erosion of belief in the supernatural. Includes a growing respect for rationality, cultural and religious pluralism, tolerance of moral ambiguity, faith in education, and belief in civil rights, the rule of law, and due process.
Self-fulfilling prophecy A belief or prediction about a person or situation that influences that person or situation in such a way that the belief or prediction comes true. Sex The biological distinction of being male or female. Sibling A brother or sister.
Social categories Groups of people who may not interact but who share certain social characteristics or statuses. Social change A modification or transformation in the way society is organized.
Social construction of reality The process of socially creating definitions of situations so that they appear to be natural. Social control The relatively patterned and systematic ways in which society guides and restrains individual behaviors so that people act in predictable and desirable ways. Social forces The social structures and culture individuals face in a society. Social inequality The existence of unequal opportunities or rewards for people in different social positions.
Social interaction The ways people behave in relation to one another by means of language, gestures, and symbols. Socialist societies Societies in which productive resources are owned and controlled by the state rather than by individuals.
Socialization The process of preparing newcomers to become members of an existing social group by helping them to learn the attitudes and behaviors that are considered appropriate. Social learning theory A form of learning theory suggesting that people learn through observation and imitation, even though they are not rewarded or punished for certain behaviors. Social mobility The movement from one status to another within a stratified society. Social movement A group of people who work together to guide or suppress particular changes in the way society is organized.
Social network A set of interdependent relations or links between individuals. Social psychology The scientific study of how individual behavior is socially influenced. Social relations of production The organization of economic life on the basis of owning or not owning the means of production, purchasing or selling labor power, and controlling or not controlling other people's labor power.
Social sciences Disciplines related to sociology that study human activity and communication, including psychology, anthropology, economics, political science. Social stratification The fairly permanent ranking of positions in a society in terms of unequal power, prestige, or privilege. Social structure Recurrent and patterned relationships among individuals, organizations, nations, or other social units.
Society A group of people with a shared and somewhat distinct culture who live in a defined territory, feel some unity as a group, and see themselves as distinct from other peoples.
Sociobiology The scientific study of the biological basis for human behavior. Socioeconomic status SES An index of social status that considers a person's occupation, education, and income as measures of social status. Sociology The study and analysis of patterned social relationships in modern societies. Sovereignty The authority claimed by a state to maintain a legal system, use coercive power to secure obedience, and maintain its independence from other states.
Sponsored mobility A pattern in which certain children are selected at an early age for academic and university education and are thus helped to achieve higher social status. Sport A form of game in which the outcome is affected by physical skill.
- What is the difference between socialization and social control?
- Social Control and Socialization
Staff job In an organization, an advisory or administrative job that supports the manufacturing, production, selling, or other primary activities of the organization. Stage theory A theory suggesting that nations go through various systematic stages of development. State The institutionalized, legal organization of power within territorial limits. State sector The sector of the economy controlled by local, state, or federal governments that supplies goods and services under direct contract to that state.
State terrorism The use of torture, death squads, and disappearances by political states to intimidate citizens. Status A socially defined position in society that carries with it certain prescribed rights, obligations, and expected behaviors. Status-attainment model A view of social mobility suggesting the importance of father's education, father's occupation, son's education, and son's first job for a man's adult status.
Early research was based only on men. Status group People who share a social identity based on similar values and life-styles. Status inconsistency May occur when an individual occupies two or more unequal statuses in a society. Stigmatization The process of spoiling a person's identity by labeling him or her in a negative way.
Structural change Demographic, economic, and rank-order changes in a society. Structural-functional perspective One of the major theoretical perspectives in sociology, developed by Talcott Parsons: Subculture A distinguishable group that shares a number of features with the dominant culture within which it exists while also having unique features such as language, customs, or values.
Subjective meanings The values and interpretations individuals place on their life situations and experiences; may vary from person to person. Subjective social class A person's own perception of his or her class position. Suburb A fairly small community within an urban area that includes a central city. Superego In Freudian theory, the part of the personality structure that upholds the norms of society.
Symbol Any object or sign that evokes a shared social response. Symbolic interaction Interaction that relies on shared symbols such as language. Symbolic interactionism An interpretive perspective, inspired by the work of George Herbert Mead, saying that individuals learn meanings through interaction with others and then organize their lives around these socially created meanings.