Pernicious anemia is one of the vitamin B deficiency anemias. . such as pernicious anemia, the body's antibodies stop distinguishing between diseased. Overview of vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies and tests used to diagnose and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute: Pernicious anemia. Interrelationship between. Vitamin. B12 and. Ascorbic. Acid in. Pernicious. Anemia. By. Sicimwn. BENHAM. Kins. AND. ISADORE. BR0D5KY. With the technical.
A smooth, thick, red tongue also is a sign of vitamin B12 deficiency and pernicious anemia. Infants who have vitamin B12 deficiency may have poor reflexes or unusual movements, such as face tremors.
They may have trouble feeding due to tongue and throat problems. They also may be irritable.
Vitamin B12 or folate deficiency anaemia - Causes - NHS
If vitamin B12 deficiency isn't treated, these infants may have permanent growth problems. Diagnosis Your doctor will diagnose pernicious anemia based on your medical and family histories, a physical exam, and test results. Your doctor will want to find out whether the condition is due to a lack of intrinsic factor or another cause. He or she also will want to find out the severity of the condition, so it can be properly treated. Specialists Involved Primary care doctors—such as family doctors, internists, and pediatricians doctors who treat children —often diagnose and treat pernicious anemia.
Other kinds of doctors also may be involved, including: A neurologist nervous system specialist A cardiologist heart specialist A hematologist blood disease specialist A gastroenterologist digestive tract specialist Medical and Family Histories Your doctor may ask about your signs and symptoms. He or she also may ask: Whether you've had any stomach or intestinal surgeries Whether you have any digestive disorders, such as celiac disease or Crohn's disease About your diet and any medicines you take Whether you have a family history of anemia or pernicious anemia Whether you have a family history of autoimmune disorders such as Addison's disease, type 1 diabetes, Graves' disease, or vitiligo.
Physical Exam During the physical exam, your doctor may check for pale or yellowish skin and an enlarged liver. He or she may listen to your heart for rapid or irregular heartbeats or a heart murmur. Your doctor also may check for signs of nerve damage. He or she may want to see how well your muscles, eyes, senses, and reflexes work.Pernicious Anemia Nursing, Pathophysiology, Symptoms, Treatment - Anemia Types NCLEX
Your doctor may ask questions or do tests to check your mental status, coordination, and ability to walk. Diagnostic Tests and Procedures Blood tests and procedures can help diagnose pernicious anemia and find out what's causing it. This test measures many parts of your blood. For this test, a small amount of blood is drawn from a vein usually in your arm using a needle. Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein that helps red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body.
Hematocrit is a measure of how much space red blood cells take up in your blood. A low level of hemoglobin or hematocrit is a sign of anemia. The normal range of these levels may be lower in certain racial and ethnic populations.
Your doctor can explain your test results to you. Abnormal results may be a sign of anemia, another blood disorder, an infection, or another condition. MCV is a measure of the average size of your red blood cells.
MCV can be a clue as to what's causing your anemia. In pernicious anemia, the red blood cells tend to be larger than normal. Other Blood Tests If the CBC results confirm that you have anemia, you may need other blood tests to find out what type of anemia you have.
A reticulocyte re-TIK-u-lo-site count measures the number of young red blood cells in your blood. The test shows whether your bone marrow is making red blood cells at the correct rate. People who have pernicious anemia have low reticulocyte counts. Serum folate, iron, and iron-binding capacity tests also can help show whether you have pernicious anemia or another type of anemia.
Another common test, called the Combined Binding Luminescence Test, sometimes gives false results. Scientists are working to develop a more reliable test. Your doctor may recommend other blood tests to check: Your vitamin B12 level. A low level of vitamin B12 in the blood indicates pernicious anemia.
However, a falsely normal or high value of vitamin B12 in the blood may occur if antibodies interfere with the test. Your homocysteine and methylmalonic acid MMA levels. High levels of these substances in your body are a sign of pernicious anemia. For intrinsic factor antibodies and parietal cell antibodies. These antibodies also are a sign of pernicious anemia. Bone Marrow Tests Bone marrow tests can show whether your bone marrow is healthy and making enough red blood cells.
The two bone marrow tests are aspiration as-pi-RA-shun and biopsy. For aspiration, your doctor removes a small amount of fluid bone marrow through a needle. For a biopsy, your doctor removes a small amount of bone marrow tissue through a larger needle. The samples are then examined under a microscope. In pernicious anemia, the bone marrow cells that turn into blood cells are larger than normal. Treatment Doctors treat pernicious anemia by replacing the missing vitamin B12 in the body.
People who have pernicious anemia may need lifelong treatment. The goals of treating pernicious anemia include: Preventing or treating the anemia and its signs and symptoms Preventing or managing complications, such as heart and nerve damage Treating the cause of the pernicious anemia if a cause can be found Specific Types of Treatment Pernicious anemia usually is easy to treat with vitamin B12 shots or pills.
If you have severe pernicious anemia, your doctor may recommend shots first. Shots usually are given in a muscle every day or every week until the level of vitamin B12 in your blood increases.
After your vitamin B12 blood level returns to normal, you may get a shot only once a month.
For less severe pernicious anemia, your doctor may recommend large doses of vitamin B12 pills. A vitamin B12 nose gel and spray also are available.
These products may be useful for people who have trouble swallowing pills, such as older people who have had strokes. Your signs and symptoms may begin to improve within a few days after you start treatment. Your doctor may advise you to limit your physical activity until your condition improves.
If your pernicious anemia is caused by something other than a lack of intrinsic factor, you may get treatment for the cause if a cause can be found. Like vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia, folate deficiency anaemia can develop for a number of reasons, including: If you don't regularly eat these types of foods, you may develop a folate deficiency.
Folate deficiency caused by a lack of dietary folate is more common in people who have a generally unbalanced and unhealthy diet, people who regularly misuse alcohol and people following a fad diet that doesn't involve eating good sources of folate.
Malabsorption Sometimes your body may be unable to absorb folate as effectively as it should. Excessive urination You may lose folate from your body if you urinate frequently. This can be caused by an underlying condition that affects one of your organs, such as: Your GP will be aware of medicines that can affect your folate levels and will monitor you if necessary. Other causes Your body sometimes requires more folate than normal. Your body may need more folate than usual if you: In a healthy immune system, antibodies are responsible for finding bacteria or viruses.
They then mark the invading germs for destruction. In this case, the antibodies destroy the cells making IF. The treatment for pernicious anemia is a two-part process. Your doctor will treat any existing vitamin B deficiency and check for iron deficiency. During the first few weeks of treatment, your doctor may recommend limiting physical activity. You can administer the shots yourself or have someone else give them to you at home to save you trips to the doctor.
After your B levels are normal, your doctor may recommend you take regular doses of B supplements instead of the injection. These come in pills, nasal gels, and sprays. Complications Your doctor may want to monitor you on a long-term basis.