Linguistics: sociolinguistics and psycholinguistics by Manuel Roque on Prezi
Psycholinguistics. Branches of Linguistics. Psycholinguistics is the study of the relationship between language and the mind with special attention being paid to . Within sociolinguistics, socially meaningful variation is focused in the so far without sufficient cross‐fertilization between the sociolinguistic approach. linguistics consists in studying mutual relations among properties of messages and . mutual relation between sociolinguistics and psycholinguistics there.
According to this model of mental functioning, environmental information entering into the cognitive system is successively encoded, stored and retrieved by a set of distinct mental structures. The emphasis is on the flow of information through the system. Although the meaning of the words are similar, there is a subtle difference between them.
Processing capacity refers to the total amount of cognitive resources we may devote to a task and this amount is assumed to be limited. For example the cohort model seeks to describe how words are retrieved from the mental lexicon when an individual hears or sees linguistic input. Permanent memory, which is also known as long-term memory LTMis a repository of our knowledge of the world.
This includes general knowledge including the rules of grammar or of arithmetic, along with personal experiences such as memories of our childhood and adolescence. Tulving has distinguished between two types of permanent memory: Refers to our organized knowledge of words, concepts, symbols and objects; it includes our general knowledge grammar, arithmeticspatial knowledge the typical layout of a housesocial knowledge how and when to be politeetc.
Semantic memory holds the information that is not tagged for a particular time or place e.
Holds traces of events that are specific to a particular time and space. This is the memory we use to keep a record of our personal experiences; It includes such items as what you had for breakfast this morning, what you were doing when you learned a man walked on the moon, or where you got your first job.
Is sometimes distinguished from the other two memory structures. It specifically includes information about motor skills typing, swimming, bicycling, etc. In comprehension, we may assume that as we hear a sentence, the sounds are first stored very briefly in the auditory sensory store; The sounds are held in this store for about 2 to 4 seconds, which gives us time to recognize an auditory pattern, i.
Top-Down processes 29 Psycholinguistics7 Working memory has tow functions: As regards its storing function, WM is only able to hold about seven units of information.
Since many sentences are longer than seven words, we need some way to deal immediately with more than seven words. One way we do this is to chunk the words into grammatical constituents such as Noun phrase [e.
Parallel processing refers to processes two or more of which take place simultaneously. Suppose we wish to develop a model of language production. The starting point is the idea that the speaker wants to convey; the ending point is the actual articulation of the idea.
But what happens in between? A Top-down processing model, in contrast, states that some information at the higher levels may influence processing at the lower levels. Although virtually no research has addressed the development of the sensory stores per se, there is a substantial literature on perceptual processing defined more broadly. Prior to the early s, it was generally believed that the infants perceive the world in a disorganized way.
A common test of STM in grade school children is the simple memory span test: It is clear that there are significant differences between older and younger children on this task. The major change over time is an increase in efficiency, or a decrease in the amount of cognitive capacity required for a particular task.
Increased efficiency enables a child to do simultaneously two or more tasks, or a complex task with two or more components. This is directly pertinent to language acquisition.
An intersection of sociolinguistics and psycholinguistics
The empiricists argue that the source of knowledge is experience. According to them, children begin their learning by imitating, copying and repetition. According to Taylorthe empiricist says that no linguistic structure is innate, and has to be learned. According to them, language learning by children is not subject to a similar conditioning process because they have an inborn capacity which permits them to acquire it through a normal maturational process.
The position ,shape, and movement of articulators or speech organs ,such as the lipstongue, and vocal folds.What your speaking style, like, says about you - Vera Regan - TEDxDublin
The spectra-temporal properties of the sound waves produced by speechsuch as their frequencyamplitudeand harmonic structure. The term initiators refers to the fact that they are used to initiate a change in the volumes of air cavities, and, by Boyle's Law, the corresponding air pressure of the cavity.
The term initiation refers to the change.
PSYCHOLINGUISTICS AND SOCIOLINGUISTICS — SEPARATE OR INTEGRATED? : Linguistics
Since changes in air pressures between connected cavities lead to airflow between the cavitiesinitiation is also referred to as an airstream mechanism. The three pistons present in the articulatory system are the larynx, the tongue body, and the physiological structures used to manipulate lung volume in particular the floor and the walls of the chest. The lung pistons are used to initiate a pulmonic airstream found in all human languages.
Airflow occurs when an air valve is open and there is a pressure difference between in the connecting cavities.
When an air valve is closed, there is no airflow. The air valves are the vocal folds the glottis which regulate between the supraglottal and subglottal cavities, the velopharyngeal port, which regulates between the oral and nasal cavities, and …. Consonants are produced with some form of restriction or closing in the vocal tract that hinders the air flow from the lungs.
Consonants are classified according to where in the vocal tract the airflow has been restricted. This is also known as places of articulation.
We do not know exactly when our ancestors began to speak estimates vary from 30, —years agoor even what triggered them to do so, but once they started, there was no stopping them. From such humble beginnings the 5, — 6, languages we assume to exist today have evolved. The phenomena that belong here are stress, rhythm, and intonation.
This idea that phonemes are related to dialect gives birth to the idea that there is a nexus between psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics. This intersection of two areas of linguistics research brings together two distinct approaches to studying the universal concept of verbal communication. Unfortunately, linguistics has not been an easy subject to quantify. Psycholinguistics covers the field of research that aims to define the cognitive processes of the way humans use, process and acquire language skills.
When researchers began trying to understand the mechanisms that were at work in the processing and production of speech, they had to overcome the hurdle of trying to collect quantifiable data on a subject that is inherently introspective.
What the dedicated researchers came up with was a series of experiments that produced data that could be extrapolated to make hypotheses about the cognitive processes involved in language. Being able to study language with assessable measures allows psychologists to understand what is happening in the brain as we perform a task that is so central to our experience as humans. This also allows for a potential to treat patients with language deficiencies that would otherwise be untreatable and a hindrance to normal functioning in society.
The study of the way society affects language is known as sociolinguistics. While it may seem that this effect of society on language is far removed from the cognitive aspects of psycholinguistics, there is quite a bit of overlap. In psycholinguistic research, psychologists study speech in several different ways. One important concept is the study of the perception of words and phonemes. Since not all people in the world speak the same languages, one may hypothesize that there are different mechanisms at work in different people.