# What is the relationship between absolute zero and kinetic energy

### | CK Foundation

According to Kinetic Molecular Theory, molecules have no kinetic energy See How does the temperature of absolute zero relate to the kinetic. Kinetic Molecular Theory states that gas particles are in constant motion and that all molecular motion ceases if the temperature is reduced to absolute zero. . Identify the relationship between velocity distributions and temperature and. the ABSOLUTE ZERO, the lowest temperature wich can be obtained. Temperature. ºC Because the particles are in motion, they will have kinetic energy.

Rather, a system with a negative temperature is hotter than any system with a positive temperature, in the sense that if a negative-temperature system and a positive-temperature system come in contact, heat flows from the negative to the positive-temperature system. However, some systems have a maximum amount of energy that they can hold, and as they approach that maximum energy their entropy actually begins to decrease.

Because temperature is defined by the relationship between energy and entropy, such a system's temperature becomes negative, even though energy is being added. Therefore, no complete system, i. However, for quasi-equilibrium systems e. On 3 Januaryphysicists announced that they had created a quantum gas made up of potassium atoms with a negative temperature in motional degrees of freedom for the first time.

### A temperature below absolute zero | Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

One of the first to discuss the possibility of an absolute minimal temperature was Robert Boyle. His New Experiments and Observations touching Cold, articulated the dispute known as the primum frigidum.

Some contended an absolute minimum temperature occurred within earth as one of the four classical elementsothers within water, others air, and some more recently within nitre. But all of them seemed to agree that, "There is some body or other that is of its own nature supremely cold and by participation of which all other bodies obtain that quality.

His instrument indicated temperatures by the height at which a certain mass of air sustained a column of mercury—the volume, or "spring" of the air varying with temperature. Amontons therefore argued that the zero of his thermometer would be that temperature at which the spring of the air was reduced to nothing. Pierre-Simon Laplace and Antoine Lavoisierin their treatise on heat, arrived at values ranging from 1, to 3, below the freezing-point of water, and thought that in any case it must be at least below.

### What is the relationship between absolute zero, kinetic theory and the Kelvin scale? | Socratic

Lord Kelvin's work[ edit ] After James Prescott Joule had determined the mechanical equivalent of heat, Lord Kelvin approached the question from an entirely different point of view, and in devised a scale of absolute temperature that was independent of the properties of any particular substance and was based on Carnot's theory of the Motive Power of Heat and data published by Henri Victor Regnault.

Timeline of low-temperature technology Commemorative plaque in Leiden With a better theoretical understanding of absolute zero, scientists were eager to reach this temperature in the lab. We will have more to say about molecular velocities and kinetic energies farther on.

Molecular Speed Although the molecules in a sample of gas have an average kinetic energy and therefore an average speed the individual molecules move at various speeds. Some are moving fast, others relatively slowly Figure 5.

At higher temperatures at greater fraction of the molecules are moving at higher speeds Figure 3. What is the speed velocity of a molecule possessing average kinetic energy? What is the difference between the average speed and root mean square speed of this gas?

**Interpretation of Temperature on Kinetic Theory of Gases**

Boyle's law is easily explained by the kinetic molecular theory. The pressure of a gas depends on the number of times per second that the molecules strike the surface of the container. If we compress the gas to a smaller volume, the same number of molecules are now acting against a smaller surface area, so the number striking per unit of area, and thus the pressure, is now greater. Kinetic explanation of Charles' law: Kinetic molecular theory states that an increase in temperature raises the average kinetic energy of the molecules.

If the molecules are moving more rapidly but the pressure remains the same, then the molecules must stay farther apart, so that the increase in the rate at which molecules collide with the surface of the container is compensated for by a corresponding increase in the area of this surface as the gas expands.

Kinetic explanation of Avogadro's law: If we increase the number of gas molecules in a closed container, more of them will collide with the walls per unit time. Yet, the individual molecules possess different kinetic energies — from very slow to very fast.

Low-energy states are more likely than high-energy states, i. In physics, this distribution is called the Boltzmann distribution.

Physicists working with Ulrich Schneider and Immanuel Bloch have now realised a gas in which this distribution is precisely inverted: This inversion of the energy distribution means that the particles have assumed a negative absolute temperature. The faster the spheres move, the higher their kinetic energy as well: If it were possible to heat the spheres to infinite temperature, there would be an equal probability of finding them at any point in the landscape, irrespective of the potential energy.

If one could now add even more energy and thereby heat the spheres even further, they would preferably gather at high-energy states and would be even hotter than at infinite temperature.

The Boltzmann distribution would be inverted, and the temperature therefore negative. At first sight it may sound strange that a negative absolute temperature is hotter than a positive one.

## What is the relationship between absolute zero, kinetic theory and the Kelvin scale?

This is simply a consequence of the historic definition of absolute temperature, however; if it were defined differently, this apparent contradiction would not exist.

Temperature as a game of marbles: The Boltzmann distribution states how many particles have which energy, and can be illustrated with the aid of spheres that are distributed in a hilly landscape.

At positive temperatures left imageas are common in everyday life, most spheres lie in the valley at minimum potential energy and barely move; they therefore also possess minimum kinetic energy.

States with low total energy are therefore more likely than those with high total energy — the usual Boltzmann distribution. At infinite temperature centre image the spheres are spread evenly over low and high energies in an identical landscape. Here, all energy states are equally probable. At negative temperatures right imagehowever, most spheres move on top of the hill, at the upper limit of the potential energy.

Their kinetic energy is also maximum.

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