Semantic Scholar extracted view of "What stuttering reveals about the development of the gesture-speech relationship." by Rachel I. Mayberry et al. University of Chicago. 1Departments of Psychology and Comparative Human Development, 2Department of The goal of this review is to elucidate the relationships among sign, gesture, and Key words: imagistic; categorical; homesign; learning; gesture-speech mismatch; phonology What stuttering reveals about the. and closing speech gestures, across phonetic contexts, and across development. Methods: system. Keywords: Stuttering; Development; Longitudinal; Kinematics ; phonetic contexts, and thus reveal less flexible intrinsic dynamics .. Relation of motor, linguistic and temperament factors in epidemiologic.
A five-minute break was taken between each speaking condition, to help reduce carry-over effects between experimental conditions. This basic research protocol has been used in previous peer reviewed research [ 7819 ] Control and experiment speaking conditions Each participant completed a control speaking condition and four experimental speaking conditions, which all included a silent oral opening gesture immediately preceding speech production.
For the purposes of this study, a silent opening oral gesture was defined as a silent opening mouth gesture as a means to initiate speech production. The silent oral opening gesture G provided the core behavioral gesture in which to test the mirror neuron system hypothesis by comparing fluency enhancement resulting from either: These four experimental conditions approximated different levels of action understanding when paired with the initiation of each initial speech gesture at the beginning of every phrase spoken by the participant.
For the control speaking condition, participants were instructed to read each phrase aloud without the use of a syllabic gestural prime. This was achieved through the use of an AudiSee Audisoft Technologies, model HDAwhich is a head mounted video camera system, providing participants with a centimeter visual display measured diagonally focusing on their lips, mouth, and jaw.
This visual display was approximately 40 centimeters from the participant at his or her eye level; this visual feedback served to initiate speech production. The experimenter wore the AudiSee device and provided the study participant with a silent oral opening frame visual prime which was use to initiate speech.
In the final experimental condition, the experimenter again wore the AudiSee device while providing the participant with a visual feedback of a silent oral opening frame. When the participant began to see oral movement on the visual display, they were instructed to produce a silent oral opening frame of their own before starting speech.
This combination of self-generated initiatory speech with externally generated feedback closely resembles a choral silent gesture. In all experimental speaking conditions, the different levels of action understanding gestural priming immediately preceded, and therefore initiated, speech production.
Stuttering syllables were counted from the first syllables of each speaking condition. Moments of overt stuttering were operationally defined as whole- and part-word repetitions, prolongations, or inaudible postural fixations [ 119 ]. The mean values of stuttering frequency was Due to the variance of overt stuttering severity within the small sample used in this study, a square root transformation was performed on the data before analysis, resulting in a more symmetrical and normalized distribution [ 2031 ].
Relative to stuttering frequency, an intrajudge syllable by syllable agreement was 0. Kappa values exceeding 0. Although existing research supports the activation of the mirror neuron system model relative to the enhancement of fluent speech in those who stutter [ 2025 ], results from this study supports these data while using another novel i.
In particular, these data confirm that the perception and production of initiatory gestures are not significantly different relative to efficacy of fluency enhancement; however, these data parallel previous findings in that the combination of self- and externally generated initiatory gestures trends toward significantly more efficacious fluency enhancement relative to either production or perception, alone [ 20 ].
These data, although utilizing oral gesturing rather than manual gesturing, are congruent with previous manual gesturing data in that both the production and perception of silent initiatory gestures significantly enhance fluency [ 172025 ]. While these data continue to support the mirror neuron system as a theoretical model for the enhancement of fluency, little research has been done regarding the role of action understanding with respect to the enhancement of fluency in those who stutter.
The existing literature and data suggest that mirror neuron systems may bypass certain higher order neural processes associated with stuttering, including the processes associated with speech and language [ 20253435 ].
These data applies to stuttering in that the primitive response of mirror neuron networks may enable an individual who stutters to fluently initiate speech via a primitive lower order network, and bypassing the activation higher order linguistic networks where the neural circuitry associated with stuttering is speculated to occur [ 2035 ]. Coupled with existing research, these data support the supposition that stuttering behaviors are not the central pathology, but rather that stuttering behaviors in and of themselves are lower order compensations to higher order neural processing errors.
This interpretation has been previously cited [ 1020 ], with data suggesting that stuttering behaviors may be a form of endogenous gestural priming that the body is producing, thereby activating lower order primitive neural networks as an attempt to bypass the processing errors associated with stuttering and thus compensate for the pathology occurring at a central level [ 102025 ].
Succinctly stated, stuttering behaviors may be a natural compensatory reaction to bypass a block in higher order linguistic-motor processing via a primitive lower order network.
Accordingly, the compensatory nature of stuttering behaviors serve as gestural primes in an attempt to self-generate fluent speech [ 10202535 ]. This provides a novel insight into the role of stuttering behaviors themselves and supports that there is a genetic neural substrate associated with stuttering. Anecdotally, all but one participant in this study commented that the silent oral opening gesture used in this study was essentially identical to that of secondary stuttering behaviors.Stuttering 101 for Parents
Future research and clinical application We believe this novel view delineating the central pathology i. Treatments need to target the neural pathology, or at the very least, work with the neural and behavioral compensations i. Additionally, future research in new treatment alternatives that integrate behavioral, prosthetic and pharmaceutical options is warranted, as they may better address the underlying core pathology of the disorder, and help optimize lower order activations or other behavioral compensations via multi-sensory initiatory priming via production volitional stuttering or perception prosthetic speech feedback of a SSS.
While this exploratory research provides further evidence relative to the use of AUMN as a neurological substrate for the science and treatment of stuttering, future research may consider increasing the participant sample size, as a means to better delineate the relationships between stuttering behaviors, fluency enhancement, and activation of mirror neuron networks.
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Neither view makes predictions about crosslinguistic differences. The current study addresses these issues and extends previous studies by comparing the gestural behavior during fluent and disfluent speech in a adult native speakers of Dutch vs.
Italian; b child learners vs. We ask 1 whether speakers predominantly produce gestures with fluent or with disfluent speech; 2 whether gestures occurring with disfluencies tend to be ongoing strokes or holds; 3 whether ongoing strokes during disfluencies have referential or pragmatic functions; 4 and whether there are crosslinguistic differences between Dutch and Italian speakers. Method Participants The analyses draw on four multimodal corpora consisting of narrative production story retellings in a dyadic, interactive setting.
The corpora are based on the narratives of 66 participants divided over four groups cf. They participated twice, speaking L1 Dutch on one occasion, and L2 French on the other. At the time of recording they had studied French as a foreign language for a minimum of 4 years, and had never lived in a French-speaking country. In some cases, 3 years had lapsed between their last contact with the language and the time of testing.
They were all at a low to intermediate proficiency level.
All participants signed a consent form; parents signed consent forms for the children. Materials All participants retold cartoon stories. Two different cartoons were used as stimuli. The Dutch participants native speakers and learners were shown a printed wordless cartoon featuring three gnomes trying to solve a problem cf. Since narrative content and structure is irrelevant to the analyses in this study, the use of different cartoons to elicit narrative production was deemed to be unproblematic.
Procedure The Italian participants were presented with the cartoon on a laptop that was removed after viewing. Children were recorded in a familiar setting, either their home or at school. They retold the story to a familiar adult a friend of the family or their teacher. The adult, who had also seen the cartoon, was instructed not to interrupt the child during the retelling, not to suggest parts of the story even when the child missed thembut to provide feedback showing interest and participation to the interaction i.
The Italian adults were recorded at university. Two participants were involved in each session: In order to make the Italian adult narratives comparable with those produced by the children, the listener was instructed to only listen to the story and to avoid interrupting the narrator, or to ask questions at the end of the story.
The Dutch participants were recorded at the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, Netherlands, on two different occasions approximately a week apart: The story was told to a confederate native speaker of the relevant language Dutch for the L1 sessions, and French for the L2 sessions who had not seen the cartoon. The interlocutor was instructed to ask clarification questions and provide feedback to create as naturalistic a session as possible.
Speech The retellings were transcribed using standard Dutch, French, and Italian orthography by native speakers. For the analyses presented here, all the L1 narratives Dutch adults, Italian children and adults were transcribed and analyzed in full mean duration 2 min. Because the L2 narratives were considerably longer mean duration 8 mina selection was made of 2 min from the middle of the L2 recordings for transcription and analysis see Table 2.
Overview of duration of retellings.
Importantly, only intra-clausal occurrences of disfluency were considered. That is, phenomena occurring at clause boundaries as in example 1 or following discourse markers 2 were excluded. It is well-known that pauses often occur at clause- or utterance initial boundaries, and it is suggested that this is a consequence of the planning of the next clause Maclay and Osgood, ; Hawkins,etc.
Moreover, it is also suggested that gestures are more likely to occur within than between clauses cf. Beattie and Butterworth, ; McNeill,p. In an examination of claims concerning speech and gestures in disfluency, instances of intra-clausal problems therefore seems like a better test bed where speech production has been launched and gestures are more likely to occur. Twenty cases of repetition were excluded from analysis, since there were too few instances to perform further analysis.
This procedure left 1, disfluencies for analysis. Tables 3AB provide an overview of the aggregated and relative frequency distribution of fluent and disfluent stretches of speech across the groups, and the frequency of each of the disfluency markers, respectively. Number and mean proportion of fluent and disfluent stretches of speech across groups. Number of types of disfluencies across groups.
Gestures The gesture coding took the speech analysis as its departure point. First, for each fluent and disfluent stretch of speech, we coded for the presence or absence of a gesture. Second, gestures occurring with disfluent speech were further coded for their structural properties, that is, whether they were ongoing strokes or holds.
Gestures were coded as ongoing when the stroke i. Gestures were coded as holds when there was a momentary suspension of movement, whether an interrupted or held preparation, or a post-stroke hold Figures 1D,E ; Kita et al. A total of 2, ongoing strokes, and holds were identified. To give an overview of gestural activity in the data, we also computed mean gesture rate by word for each group, by dividing the total number of words excluding interrupted words in disfluencies with the total number of ongoing strokes per individual.
We then computed the mean rate across each group. Table 4 summarizes the distribution of ongoing strokes and mean gesture rate across groups to illustrate the properties of the sample. Example of gesture phases including ongoing stroke and post-stroke hold. Third, we coded all ongoing strokes both in fluent and disfluent speech for function. Following Kendonwe distinguished between referential and pragmatic functions.
Gestures with a referential function example in Figure 2 express semantic content through the depiction of referential properties e.
Example of a referential gesture depicting fist fighting. Example of a pragmatic gesture. Hallgren, for the identification of disfluencies, and gestures, the coding of gestures as ongoing vs. Analyses For all analyses, we make a a crosslinguistic comparison of competent adult native speakers of Dutch and Italian; b a developmental comparison of three Italian child groups and adult Italian speakers; c a developmental comparison between competent adult native speakers of Dutch and adult Dutch L2 learners of French.
For the statistical analyses we used the glmerMod package in R, version 0. All analyses were run on raw numbers, but for ease of exposition figures show mean proportions. Results Gestures With Disfluent vs.
What stuttering reveals about the development of the gesture-speech relationship.
Fluent Speech Figure 4 presents the mean proportion of ongoing strokes occurring with disfluent and fluent speech, respectively, comparing adult native Dutch and Italian speakers Figure 4AItalian 4- 6- and 9-year-olds and adult Italian speakers 4Band adult native Dutch speakers and adult Dutch learners of L2 French 4C. Table 6 presents the output from three GLMMs on the likelihood of gestures occurring with disfluent speech across groups, again, first examining adult native Dutch and Italian speakers; then Italian 4- 6- and 9-year-olds and adult Italian speakers; and finally, adult native Dutch speakers and adult Dutch learners of L2 French.
A Adult native Dutch vs. B Italian children aged 4, 6, and 9 vs. C Adult native Dutch speakers vs. Summary of Generalized Linear Mixed Models testing whether ongoing strokes occur with disfluent or fluent speech across groups.
In addition, the results reveal a shift over the course of child development, with Italian adults Est. Furthermore, for L2 speakers there is an interaction with speech type such that L2 speakers are significantly more likely than L1 speakers to produce gestures with disfluent speech Est. The following examples illustrate the main pattern of absence of gestures during disfluencies.
What stuttering reveals about the development of the gesture-speech relationship.
We follow Kendon in transcribing gestures: The first is a referential gesture where both hands have a tight grip handshape moving rightward, as if holding something and moving it.
The second gesture is a pragmatic gesture where the both hands are twisted at the wrist to reveal palms up. When she then becomes disfluent, starting with a filled pause followed by a long silence, she drops both hands to the lap.
The first is a pragmatic gesture the index and thumb held together to form a ring. The second is a referential gesture performed with an open hand palm facing leftward that is moved laterally to the right side to indicate the outside. He then becomes disfluent and drops his hands to the lap.
During the disfluent stretch she drops her hands to the lap. Following this, during an exceptionally long unfilled pause 4 s msshe does nothing. Only when speech resumes with structure does she produce a gesture with a referential function, outlining a big triangle.
Holds During Disfluent Speech Figure 5 presents the mean proportion of holds across fluent and disfluent stretches of speech, respectively, comparing adult native Dutch and Italian speakers Figure 5AItalian 4- 6- and 9-year-olds and adult Italian speakers 5Band adult native Dutch speakers and adult Dutch learners of L2 French 5C. Table 7 presents the output from three GLMMs on the likelihood of holds occurring with disfluent speech across groups, again, first examining adult native Dutch and Italian speakers; then Italian 4- 6- and 9-year-olds and adult Italian speakers; and finally, adult native Dutch speakers and adult Dutch learners of L2 French.
Summary of Generalized Linear Mixed Models testing whether gestural holds occur mostly with disfluent vs.
There were no differences between the native speakers of Dutch and Italian, and no developmental effects in the child-adult comparison.
However, for L2 speakers there was an interaction with speech type such that L2 speakers were significantly more likely than L1 speakers to produce holds with fluent speech Est. In the interest of space, we provide only two examples from learners to illustrate the occurrence of holds during disfluencies.
When speech is resumed, the gesture is resumed and completed. She produces a referential gesture with the right hand open with palm facing downward moving laterally as if moving something aside. During the first filled pause eh the gestural movement goes into a hold and the speaker suspends her two hands.