Understanding Consumer-Brand Relationships
, and since Consumer Brand Relationship Association has defined brand relationships as “the interaction between consumers' attitudes . that men and women act and initiate differently in relationships. For. PDF | Existing measurement scales for Brand Relationship Quality (BRQ) only defined as a “customer-based indicator of the strength and depth of a .. distributed; however, the male proportion is slightly larger than the female one, varying. But in , labels are harder to define, says Patrick Horton, Bauer Media's Statistics from consumer insight agency GfK NOP show that men are brands have a better chance of having a rewarding relationship with them.
Rusbult showed that women were more likely than men to stand by a relationship even when problems are not resolved or addressed satisfactorily. From the discussion above, we find that gender does exert influence on the way in which individuals engage in relationships. Therefore, it is apparent that there should also be differences in men and women in their relationships with brands. We address this issue by looking at how men and women differ in their evaluation of their current relationships with brands.
METHOD Sample Seventy-one undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory marketing course a large university in the Midwest were recruited to complete the study. Design The study employed a 2 closeness of relationship: Independent variables The independent variables were closeness of relationship and gender. Closeness of relationship reflects the degree of closeness of the consumer-brand relationship as perceived by the consumer.
Subjects were asked to think about a "brand with which they had a close and strong relationship" referred to as the close brand and also a "brand with which they did not have as a close and strong a relationship with as the brand in earlier section" referred to as the distant brand.
This technique has been used by Fournier Participants were then asked to answer a series of questions about both brands as described below. If a statement did not make sense for the brand they had in mind, they could check a box marked "irrelevant to this brand". Items that subjects said were "irrelevant to this brand", were coded as an "8" due to the fact that subjects seemed to use "irrelevant to this brand" as a stronger form of disagree [The analysis was repeated treating "irrelevant to the brand" as missing data.
Results were virtually identical to those reported in the results section. The statements were developed by us or chosen from the Fournier scale in order to achieve three objectives. First, we wanted items that would tap into the dimensions of relationship quality intimacy and interdependence that are especially important for understanding the dual nature of true relationships. Second, we needed items to assess both sides of the relationship.
For most items, there are 2 forms: Procedure Subjects were first required to engage in an introductory task during which they had to think about brands as if they were people. They were given examples of how some people talk about their brands as if they were real people. This is similar to the procedure used by Fournier to get subjects into the proper frame of mind so that they could apply interpersonal constructs easily to the brand.
Then, they were asked to complete a series of questions about the brand that they selected. On completion of this section, subjects were asked to select a brand with which they were not as close to as the brand selected in the first section.
The subjects were then asked to answer the same set of questions for this brand. The order of the close and distant brand were the same for all subjects, so that after engaging in the introductory task they could answer questions easily for the close brands and get into the "relationship frame of mind". Finally, subjects answered questions about their gender, age and education level. RESULTS Before examining our propositions, we provide some descriptions of the nature of the products and services that subjects selected for close versus distant brands.
Among the close brands, the most frequently mentioned product categories were beverages e. For the distant brands, the most frequently mentioned product categories were beverages e. Crew and automobiles e. To examine our propositions, the responses to the items were analyzed in a 2 closeness of relationship: The results showed a significant gender x closeness of relationship interaction Wilks'?
Then, specific univariate tests were examined See Table 1 for means and standard deviations and Table 2 for the Anova results. Although the items roughly correspond to the dimensions of intimacy, interdependence and partner quality, all analysis was done at a disaggregate level because each individual item taps into something unique.
We also calculated contrasts to test whether differences in closeness of relationships were significant within each gender type See Table 2 for these results. From Table 2, we find that there are significant main effects of gender on the responses to both "consumer- as- actor" items and "b rand- as-actor" items. The significant main effects of closeness of relationship indicate that respondents distinguished between close and distant brands for both types of items.
However, care should be taken in interpreting these main effects because several of the items show an interaction between closeness of relationship and gender. From the interaction effects column, we observe that majority of the "brand-as-actor" items show an interaction of gender and closeness, unlike the "consumer-as-actor" items.
What men want from a brand relationship
For example, "I am important to this brand", "This brand depends on me", "This brand is close to me", "This brand appreciates me" are some of the "brand-as-actor" items that show an interaction of gender and closeness of relationship.
Thus, it appears that men and women distinguish close and distant relationships on the basis of how they act towards the brand, but women also distinguish on the basis of how the brand acts towards them. This observation is supported by examining the contrast between close versus distant brands, by gender. For the "consumer-as-actor" items, both males and females distinguished between close and distant brands. For example, "This brand is important to me", "I depend on this brand", "I am close to this brand" are some of the "consumer-as-actor" items that are used by males and females to differentiate between close and distant brands.
However, for the "brand-as-actor" items, while the females distinguished close and distant brands using most of the items, the males did not do so. For instance, "This brand depends on me", "This brand is close to me", "This brand has a continuing interest in me" are some of the "brand as-actor" items that are used by females to distinguish close and distant brands, but not by males.
Our findings suggest that men may not view brand relationships as a dyadic interaction as much as women do. Men seem to have no difficulty in distinguishing between a close and a distant brand for the "consumer-as-actor" items. Men may not relate to the "brand-as-actor items" well because they do not consider the brand as being an active participant in the relationship as much as women do.
Fournier suggested that the ways by which the brand may be considered as an active relationship partner include the personification of the brand and also the marketing communications and the marketing actions of the brand towards the consumer.
According to Fournieralthough a brand may enjoy selected animistic properties, it is not a vital entity. From this it is evident that an individual has to perceive and think about the brand as being a relationship partner before one can properly interpret the "brand- as- actor" items.
Our findings imply that while females may easily think of the brand as an active partner, the males may not. This may be explained by the fact that a woman's identity is structured by connectedness and relationality Crosby, In Fournier's research, three women's concerns and themes in their lives were reflected in the brands that they used.
These women had no problem in thinking about the brand as a relationship partner because they used terms like "How could Mary Kay cosmetics do that to me? This would imply that women can easily think about the brand as an active relationship partner.
What men want from a brand relationship - Marketing Week
While, for women, brands may have important self-identity functions as shown in Fournier's workfor men, who tend to be instrumental in nature, may use brands as tools to reach their goals.
Our findings also link closely with those of Mittal and Kamakura They found that for the same level of satisfaction, the probability of repurchasing among women is uniformly higher than among men.What is BRAND ARCHITECTURE? What does BRAND ARCHITECTURE mean? BRAND ARCHITECTURE meaning
This may reflect the fact that women, unlike men, seem to maintain their relationship with brands, a finding that is consistent with the interpersonal relationships literature Wood, One of the important implications of our findings is in the measurement of brand relationship quality.
Since the actions of the brand towards the consumer are important for women, these items need to be included in any evaluation of BRQ. Excluding these items would lead us to capture a less rich picture of the interactions that form the key element of a relationship. While men tend to view their relationships as being one-way, women tend to see their relationships as being more dual in nature. Since women tend to consider the brand's actions towards them, firms should pay extra attention to the way in which the brand "behaves" towards women.
These implications suggest that much future research can be done in the area of consumer-brand relationships. Relationship theory is a rich framework, which can be used to further explore important issues revealed by our findings.
Freeman and Company, 1- CrossLisa "Customer Intimacy: Fournier, Susan M"Consumers and Their brands: Men are taking more of an interest in themselves, in home design, cooking and other areas that have traditionally been seen as female. Even Heston Blumenthal, with his celebrity chef status, has enough of the average guy about him to be an appealing spokesman, suggests Bates.
As the UK emerges from the recession, the average guy group could help lift many brands back into profit. Statistics about future purchasing behaviour show men are less likely to cut back than women.
Areas where men show they intend to maintain their level of spend include eating out, holidays, buying new furniture and large electrical goods as well as shopping for organic or ethical products.
The ultimate dating guide for you and your customers? Understanding Consumer-Brand Relationships
This shows there is a real opportunity to inspire spending. Championing masculinity and the role of men in families is key for brands to expand their engagement with consumers. If you want consumers to take part in the life of your brand, you must demonstrate that your brand cares about the things people care about.
There is a huge territory here that is underexploited. The company has surveyed 1, UK men aged 15 to 40, and set up a panel of men producing blogs and video diaries to illustrate their day-to-day lives. Wide range of brands Advertisements that resonate among both men and women include everything from chocolate commercials to car ads, the research shows.