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If you wanted any longer-term perspective, you've got to backtrack the conversion histories of the French franc and the Deutsche mark. That takes a bit of work and research, but if you're really interested in a proper placement of long-term data, you've found that the dollar has done worse against major European treaties. In the mid-'90s, to be specific. You remember, the Golden Age of Clinton.
But while the talking heads and perma-bears are slaving at the prospects of having to pay more dollars for their bottle of Beaujolais on their vacations in Paris, there's another group completely absent from the outcry: Which is even more surprising considering how vocal these folks were in earlywhen the dollar was riding high both against the yen and the euro. In fact, back then they were lobbying hard to get the Bush administration to pursue a soft-dollar course.
The reasoning is quite clear: If the dollar rides as low as the pants of a suburban teenager against other treaties, it makes American-made products look cheap by comparison. In a global market, where the order goes to the lowest bidder, that's a competitive advantage against European and Asian companies. Global competition Being competitive means that companies can continue making money.
Making money means creating jobs — or, even better, keeping additional jobs from being outsourced to China, Mexico and India. Have you noticed that no celebrity Democratization has publicly come out about their dollars buying fewer euros? Ever since the dollar began to slip, two things have happened: The US economy has grown and unemployment has fallen. Plummeted to levels that have European politicians green with envy. They're just too busy to notice, what with fighting the windmills of 's hyperinflation as a matter of policy.
It's not like this is a Yankee thing, either. You may notice that Japan is doing what it can to keep the yen as low as possible against the euro and the dollar without cheesing of the G8.
So far, its latest efforts have responded in the strongest economic growth in a decade and a half. This was a rather standard example of raw human intelligence reporting, a mishmash of claims, some of them obviously untrue.
The media, unaccustomed to seeing raw HUMINT reports, acted aghast at the salacious nature of some of the claims in the dossier Whether those particular claims are true or not If Trump was unwise enough to engage in randy behavior in Russia, the FSB unquestionably has it on video.
The media is focusing on the juicy aspects of the dossier at the expense of the only truly important and potentially game-changing one. The report names several Russian representatives said to have met with Trump lawyer Michael Cohen, including Oleg Solodukhin, who serves in Prague, posing as a diplomat, but is actually well known to Czech counterintelligence as a Kremlin spy. So far, so plausible—particularly since Prague is a hotbed of Russian espionage, and the number of Kremlin spies pretending to be diplomats there is remarkably high.
This claim, if true, would sink the Trump presidency before it even begins. The goals of the integration policy for immigrants are: There is a huge debate on how socio-economic and socio-cultural integration influence each other for the moment we disregard the question as to whether both can be attained at all. And which factors are responsible for successful upward mobility is still a central issue in immigration-integration theories.
Two instances of issues are: The literature shows that, in the long run, almost all immigrant groups integrate into their host society see Lindo, ; Putnam, What varies between different immigrant groups is the period of time in which the immigrants achieve integration. Whether or not they will manage to integrate successfully does not only depend on the immigrants themselves. Integration is a two-way process that also depends on the host society and how and when they will accept the newcomers.
He refers to the South European immigrants in the Netherlands who did not have a need to be profiled in terms of ethnic differences.
He expressed it as follows. Ethnic cohesion and participation in society are not mutually exclusive; persons who associate frequently and strongly with members of their own group do not necessarily have fewer contacts with people and institutions outside their own group.
According to Glick Schiller et al. Glick Schiller puts processes and social relations into focus rather than culture, identity or functional integration. This exploration of ties within and beyond the boundaries of the nation state helps the discussion of the simultaneity, viz. Incorporation is defined as the processes of building or maintaining networks of social relations through which an individual becomes linked to an institution recognised by one or more nation states.
In our research we use the following definition for the concept of integration. Immigrants are integrated into their new host society when: From this it is clear that a community is much more than just a set of people.
Gemeinschaft, or community, represents a grouping based on: In contrast Gesellschaft, or society, represents a group of people that never takes more importance than the self-interest of the individuals. Social ties in this type of group are usually superficial and instrumental. There are many discussions in the literature regarding the definition of a web community or any other community mediated through technology, such as online communities or virtual communities. However, for a better understanding it is wise to review some other opinions.
IRC systems, e-mails, mail lists, forums, web sites, and even web communities. It is based on linked data and typed data. Therefore, metaphorically, the term web in itself stands for a network of communication lines, so the terms web and world wide web are synonyms. By picking this term, we left behind numerous discussions and inconsistencies that exist based only on many terms that are mostly used to discuss the same thing. It is important to emphasise that in this research we distinguish between web space, web site, and web community.
Web site and web community are most closely related, but certainly not the same. The main difference between them is that a traditional web site provides one-way information, published information of which the user has the passive role of reader, whereas web community stands for a group of people that interact on the web.
Web Communities, Immigration, and Social Capital - egauteng.info
They can all design, communicate, publish, and read in the same web environment. In contrast to one-directional web sites and two-directional web communities we introduce the concept web space.
To make the difference clear, we offer definition 1. Web space describes all kinds of web activities associated with a particular web address.
The term web space is useful, particularly so long as it is not clear that the place involved is a web site or web community. There are many parameters by which we can distinguish one type of web community from another. The following five parameters are clear examples: Easy-touse publishing tools have led to many different types of web communities.
They deal with many topics, for instance: Web communities can also be classified according to how immediate is the communication among their members. There are many classifications of web communities and they are all based on the main topic of the activities performed by their members. The reason why this research is centred on web communities as a tool lies in the drastic changes that have been introduced by the emergence of social software see Boyd, ; Hellsten, ; Ala-Mutka et al.
To be more precise, the changes are: The design of new technologies is shifted from blocked systems toward open systems where users continually make changes depending on how they use the technologies.
The systems in the early days of web design, i. Only technologically advanced users were able to make contributions or change published information. After the web evolved into an open system whereby a contribution on the web was no longer only preserved for those who were technically advanced.
Web Communities, Immigration, and Social Capital
Currently, every user can contribute, comment, and exchange information, making the system open Blogger, Twitter, Facebook, Discussion boards etc.
Thus we can see that the process of design changed toward a continuous process of designing and learning from users.
At the same time, usability is based on the human interaction paradigm. The development of the web from a closed to an open system changed the way users communicate with each other.
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Since easy publishing software enabled every user to be a contributor, the passive role of reading the content on the web changed into active interaction between users. This interactivity changed the way we currently perceive the web and the way we operate in a fully new public space, called a web space.
Below we provide six characteristics of the new web space. A particular nickname will be understood and evaluated on the basis of the behaviour of the person behind that nickname. This independent identity is one of the most valuable aspects of the web culture. It allows users to explore roles and relationships that might otherwise be closed to them. The members are normally asked for their name, e-mail address, and password.
For this reason, web communities create the possibility of transcending many offline real world barriers and borders. The web is not only changing how people communicate, it is also changing with whom they communicate.
Moreover, the web enables its users to meet people online, even those who they may never meet in person see di Genaro and Dutton, The six characteristics listed above are expected to create positive effects in the sphere of immigrant integration.
The reconstruction of new communities, now more able to avoid social and space barriers, may provide a new opportunity to immigrant individuals and groups. Therefore, web communities may be an appropriate tool to meet some of the challenges faced by immigrants.
Our current global society is characterised by a new social norm of organisation Castells, In a world where the Internet is the major mode of communication we have a new pattern of sociability — the network society. One peculiarity of the network society is that it brings new sets of information technologies. We have a new informational economy, networked and global; work and employment are transformed; cultural expressions are shaped by 15 IT; politics is fundamentally affected; the notions of time and space have also changed.
The state as the traditional centre of power is going through a drastic transformation. Today the world around us exhibits a tendency of being organised in networks, and this trend is particularly important for the present study. One of the key issues amongst the social problems of immigrant integration is that the typical immigrant has traditionally been marginalised and discriminated against by the traditional social organisations, and these factors have often prevented immigrants from prospering.
Perhaps the network-society will enable immigrants to be better organized socially than they have been with these more traditional social organisations.
Whether or not this will be the case is still an open question. To answer this question it is logical to regard the new networks and web communities as social places where social problems can be overcome. Below we review and delineate the concept of social capital, leading to definition 1.
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Social capital is an elastic term with various definitions in many fields. Many scholars have considered this topic. We begin our discussion by reference to Bourdieu and Wacquant who defined social capital as: The proposed definitions are slightly different but they all converge to same point.
According to Putnamthis convergence occurs at the point where networks and associated norms of reciprocity obtain a value. This idea might be taken as the central idea of social capital.
From the literature we have observed that social capital is linked to a variety of positive outcomes such as better health, lower crime rates, and more efficient markets Adler and Kwon, Social capital may also be used for negative purposes, but in general it is seen as a positive effect of the interaction amongst participants in a social network Helliwell and Putnam, Networks have a certain value for the people in them as well as for those outside them.
This introduces two faces of social capital: Private social capital stands for private networks such as close 16 friends or family Brinton,